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Physiology

Week 6 Chapter 14 & 17

QuestionAnswer
Repeated stimulation of muscle in time lessens its excitability and contractibility and may result in fatigue.
The largest and most commonly injured joint in the body is the _____ joint. knee
Which structure allows the electrical signals to travel along the sarcolemma and move deeper into the cell? transverse tubule
Anaerobic respiration results in the formation of an incompletely catabolized molecule called lactate .
The four kinds of protein that make up myofilaments are myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and troponin.
Exercise may cause an increase in muscle size called hypertrophy.
Muscle tone is maintained by negative feedback mechanisms.
Which type of movement occurs between the carpal and tarsal bones and between the articular facets of adjoining spinal vertebrae? gliding
Joints joined by fibrocartilage are called symphyses
The contractile unit of a muscle cell is the sarcomere
According to the sliding filament theory actin moves past myosin.
If a structural classification is used, joints are named according to the type of _____ tissue that joins the bones together. connective
The more muscle fibers contracting at the same time, the stronger the contraction of the entire muscle. The number of muscle fibers contracting depends on how many motor units are recruited
_____ occurs when the foot is tilted upward, thus decreasing the angle between the top of the foot and the front of the leg. Dorsiflexion
Three phases of the twitch contraction are the latent period, contraction phase, and relaxation phase.
The minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract is called the threshold stimulus.
The joint present during the growth years between the epiphyses of a long bone and its diaphysis is the synchrondrosis.
The structure of the knee joint permits movements of flexion and extension.
Which of the following is not among the structures that characterize synovial joints? tendons
Synovial joints are freely movable.
The joints between the articulating surfaces of the vertebral processes are classified as what type of joint? gliding
Which of the following is not a function of muscles? storage
The muscle’s ability to stretch or extend and to return to its resting length is called extensibility.
Which of the following is an example of a uniaxial joint? elbow joint
Synarthrotic joints are immovable.
Some synovial joints contain a closed pillow-like structure called a(n) bursa.
Which subtype of fibrous joints is found only in the skull? suture
The shoulder joint is an example of a _____ joint. The shoulder joint is an example of all of these.
A contraction in which muscle length remains the same but muscle tension increases is called an isometric contraction.
The energy required for muscular contraction is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP
The strength of a muscle contraction is influenced by the: amount of load, initial length of muscle fibers, and recruitment of motor units.
Kicking a football is accomplished by knee: extension
Which type of muscle does not have T-tubules? smooth
Which joint allows for the widest range of movement? ball and socket
The largest and most frequently injured joint is the: knee
Glucose can be stored in the muscle as: Glycogen
Tilting the foot upward, decreasing the angle between the top of the foot and the front of the leg, is called: dorsiflexion
Which joint allows for the most movement? ball and socket
Cross-bridges are also called: myosin heads.
Which of the following is not one of the major functions of muscles? protection
Which type of joint joins the two pubic bones together? Symphysis
The rotator cuff muscles and tendons form a cufflike arrangement around the _____ joint. shoulder
The type of movement possible at a synovial joint depends on the: shape of the articulating surfaces of the bones.
During which phase of the twitch contraction is there a triggering of the release of calcium ions into the sarcoplasm? Latent period
The opposite of eversion is: none of the above
All of the following are true characteristics of an isometric contraction except: movement is produced.
Endurance training is also known as: aerobic training.
Muscle contractions will continue as long as: the calcium ions are attached to the troponin.
Most body movements are _____ contractions. isotonic
The chief function of the T-tubules is to: allow for electrical signals to move deeper into the cell.
Which joint allows for a unique movement called opposition? saddle
An example of a hinge joint is(are) the: interphalangeal joints.
A contraction in which the tension within the muscle remains the same but the length changes is called a(n) _____ contraction. isotonic
Which of the following statements about cardiac muscle is incorrect? Cardiac muscle requires nervous stimulation to contract.
The type of movement that occurs when the head is dropped to the shoulder, then to the chest, to the other shoulder, and toward the back is: circumduction.
All of the following are characteristics of smooth muscle except: thin and thick filaments are aligned in sarcomeres like skeletal muscles.
Moving a body part away from the medial plane of the body is called: abduction
The ability of muscle cells to respond to nerve stimuli is called: irritability.
White fibers are also called _____ fibers. fast
The knee joint is an example of a _____ joint. hinge
Attempting to pick up an object too heavy to lift would result in which type of muscle contraction? Isometric
Stretching the foot down and back and pointing the toe is called: plantar flexion.
Skeletal muscles are innervated by: somatic motor neurons.
Physiological muscle fatigue may be caused by: a relative lack of ATP, high levels of lactate, and failure of the sodium-potassium pumps.
Thick myofilaments extend the length of the: A-band
Which structure functions to temporarily store calcium ions? Sarcoplasmic reticulum
The first event to occur in muscle relaxation is that: the sarcoplasmic reticulum begins actively pumping calcium back into its sacs.
the sarcoplasmic reticulum begins actively pumping calcium back into its sacs. The body temperature set point is established by the hypothalamus, Shivering will increase body temperature, and Body temperature functions on a negative-feedback mechanism.
An example of a pivot joint is(are) the: head of the radius articulating with the ulna.
In terms of function, which is considered an immovable joint? Synarthrosis
A condyloid joint is an example of a(n) _____ joint. biaxial
After it is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the calcium combines with which protein? Troponin
Rotator cuff surgery is performed quite commonly on professional baseball players, especially pitchers. Evidently, the throwing motion places enormous stress on the: shoulder
The substance that attracts oxygen in the myoglobin molecule is: iron
What are the most movable joints in the body? Synovial
Created by: ashleysummers
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