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Muscle Review

muscle fiber A single muscle cell
skeletal muscle The strongest type of muscle. Has visible striations. Voluntary control. Found in muscles that move your skeleton.
smooth muscle The type of muscle that is weak but does not fatigue. Involuntary control. Found around digestive tract and blood vessels.
cardiac muscle The type of muscle that makes up your heart. Involuntary control.
actin and myosin The proteins that make up muscles and allow for contractions.
fast twitch fiber This type of skeletal muscle is stronger, but fatigues quickly. It has a higher concentration of actin and myosin, and greater stores of glucose and glycogen.
slow-twitch fiber This type of skeletal muscle is weaker but has more endurance. It has greater blood supply and more mitochondria.
fascicle A bundle of muscle fibers.
flex Forward/backward movement that bends body parts closer together.
extend Forward/backward movement that straightens body parts out or moves them farther apart.
abduct Sideways movement of limbs away from the center of the body.
adduct Sideways movement of limbs towards the center of the body.
muscle strain When a muscle is stretched or torn.
contusion Hard impact to a muscle leading to internal bleeding and discoloration.
muscle cramp Muscle pain related to misfiring of motor neurons when overused.
how to treat a muscle cramp Massage, stay hydrated, stretch, sport drinks, epsom salt bath.
muscle soreness (DOMS) Microscopic tears in muscle fibers leading to inflammation and pain 1-3 days after exercise.
how to prevent sore muscles. Caffeine, snacks, stretch, warm-up and cool down, keep moving after exercise, stay hydrated, sports drinks
hernia When a small tear in muscle or body cavity membrane allows intestine to squeeze through. Usually happens during heavy lifting.
how to treat a hernia Suture the torn muscle with a piece of mesh.
myosatellite cells Stem cells that help repair damaged muscle tissue
muscle atrophy Loss of muscle strength due to lack of exercise.
aerobic respiration Uses oxygen to break down sugar. This process is slower but gets more energy out of the sugar which allows for endurance activity.
anaerobic respiration Does not use oxygen to break down sugar. This process is faster but it runs out of sugar and fatigues quickly.
vO2max The maximum rate at which the body can get oxygen from the lungs to be used by the muscles.
lactate threshold How hard you can exercise before becoming fatigued. It's the point at which your muscles are producing more lactate than they can remove.
average vO2max for an athlete 60-90 ml/kg*min
tendon Attaches muscle to bone. Made of dense collagen protein fibers.
ligament Attaches bone to bone around joints. Made of dense collagen protein fibers.
motor unit The group of muscle fibers that are stimulated by a single neuron.
average vO2max for non-athlete 40ml/kg*min
Created by: buchwalder
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