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Skeletal review

articular cartilage Strong and smooth connective tissue that covers the end of bones to reduce friction in joints
epiphysis The head of a bone, usually covered in articular cartilage.
shin splints When the periosteum, tendon, or muscle on the tibia gets partially torn and inflamed.
shin splint treatments Rest, ice, and strengthen leg muscles.
red marrow Where new red and white blood cells are formed, found in the heads of most bones
yellow marrow Stores fat in bones, found only in long bones
cortical bone Hard, dense bone that forms the outer layer; also called compact bone
osteoblasts Bone cells that deposit minerals to build new bone
osteoclast Bone cells that dissolve and recycle existing bone
trabecular bone Flexible, spongy bone that forms the inner layer of most bones
growth plate the area just below the head of a long bone in which growth in bone length occurs
fractured growth plate leads to warped bone growth, lack of bone growth, and stunted limbs
compound fracture bone breaks through the skin, most likely fracture to get infected
comminuted fracture fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
soft callus A web of cartilage that forms around a fractured bone.
periosteum The tough membrane that surrounds a bone to nourish it and allows tendons to attach.
causes of bone atrophy Not getting enough exercise or not getting enough vitamins and minerals.
synovial bursa Fluid filled sacs between joint spaces; provide lubrication and cushioning
meniscus A crescent-shaped chunk of cartilage between bones that absorbs shock and pressure
osteoporosis Loss of minerals in bone leading to fragile bones that break easily.
risk factors for osteoporosis Lack of vitamin D and calcium, being female, Asian, and old, not getting enough exercise, smoking and drinking.
bursitis Inflammation of the bursa around a joint, usually in the knees and elbows.
causes of bursitis Trauma, bacterial infection, irritation from overuse, or auto-immune disorder.
rheumatoid arthritis Swollen and painful joints, sometimes leading to deformation and twisting of the fingers.
causes of rheumatoid arthritis Your own immune cells attack tissue in your joints, leading to inflammation and thickening of the joint bursa.
calcium phosphate the mineral that makes up 70% of bone material
osteosarcoma Bone cancer. Bone cells grow and multiply in an out of control way.
causes of osteosarcoma Often due to radiation exposure but some types are genetic or caused by another disease.
rickets Weak and deformed bones especially during childhood. Fairly common in poor areas with malnutrition.
causes of rickets Lack of vitamin D which leads to low calcium absorption from food.
Paget's disease of bone Overactive osteoblasts and osteoclasts leading to disorganized bone formation. 3% of adults over 40 have it. Symptoms range from joint pain to massive bone deformities.
causes for Paget's disease of bone Viruses, genetics (more common in Europeans), air pollution seems to exacerbate it.
Osgood-Schlatter disorder When the tendon attached to the tibia pulls so hard that the bone either is stressed or cracks
bunions Painful swelling on the of the big toe when the metatarsal points outward too far. When these get severe enough, surgery is required to realign
causes of ACL tear Movements that cause sudden twisting to the knee like cutting, jumping, and stopping suddenly.
grade 1 ligament sprain A ligament gets stretched beyond normal length. This results in pain and some swelling.
grade 3 ligament sprain A ligament is completely torn. This results in major bruising, swelling and pain.
Created by: buchwalder
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