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Terms

Nursing 315

QuestionAnswer
Eupnea normal, quiet breathing at a rate of 12 to 20 breaths per minute in adults
Apnea an absence of spontaneous respiration
Bradypnea an abnormally low rate of breathing (less than 12 breaths per minute)
Tachypnea an abnormally rapid rate of breathing (more than 20 breaths per minute)
Bradycardia a condition in which the heart rate is less than 60 bpm
Tachycardia a condition in which the heart contracts at a rate greater than 100 bpm
Obesity an abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells, mainly in the viscera and subcutaneous tissues of the body. Obesity may be exogenous or endogenous. BMI = 30kg/m
Korotkoff's sounds The sphygmomanometer is inflated enough to collapse an artery. As air is released from the cuff, pressure on the artery is reduced and the blood is heard pulsing through the collapsed vessel.
Hypotension an abnormal condition in which the blood pressure is not adequate for normal perfusion and oxygenation of the tissues. An expanded intravascular space, hypovolemia, or diminished cardiac output may be the cause.
Hypertension a common disorder that is a known cardiovascular disease risk factor, characterized by elevated blood pressure over the normal values of 120/80 mm Hg in an adult over 18 years of age.
Orthostatic hypotension abnormally low blood pressure that occurs when an individual suddenly assumes the standing posture. It can produce dizziness and fainting.
Pulse pressure the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures, normally 30 to 50 mm Hg.
Auscultatory gap time in which sound is not heard in the auscultatory method of measuring blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer, occurring particularly in hypertension and in some aortic stenosis.
Afebrile without fever.
Systole the contraction of the heart, driving blood into the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
Diastole the period between contractions of the atria or ventricles during which blood enters the relaxed chambers from the systemic circulation and the lungs.
Neuropathic pain pain that results from the direct stimulation of the myelin or nervous tissue of the peripheral or central nervous system.
Referred pain pain felt at a site different than that of an injured or diseased organ or body part.
Somatic pain generally well-localized pain that results from the activation of peripheral nociceptors without injury to the peripheral nerve or CNS.
Visceral pain pain that results from the activation of nociceptors of the thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal viscera. It is felt as poorly localized aching or cramping sensation and is often referred to cutaneous sites.
Health promotion public efforts to reduce the incidence of disease and its impact on people, communities, and populations
ADLs tasks performed by individuals in a typical day that allow for independent living
Gordon's functional health patterns a method developed by Marjory Gordon in 1987 used by nurses in the nursing process to provide a more comprehensive nursing assessment of the patient
Objective data what you as the health professional observe by inspecting, palpating, percussing, and auscultating during the physical exam
Subjective data what the person says about himself during history taking
Sign objective abnormality that you as the examiner detect on physical examination, or in lab reports
Symptom subjective sensation that the person feels from the disorder
Data base includes patient's records and lab studies used to make clinical judgementor diagnosis about an individual's health state or response to health problems and life processes
Holistic health views the mind, body, and spirit as interdependent and functioning as a whole within the environment
Data base includes patient's records and lab studies used to make clinical judgementor diagnosis about an individual's health state or response to health problems and life processes
Holistic health views the mind, body, and spirit as interdependent and functioning as a whole within the environment
Affect temporary expression of feelings or state of mind
Mood more durable, prolonged display of feelings that color the whole emotional life
Consciousness being aware of one's existence, feelings, and thoughts, and awareness of the environment.
Orientation awareness of the objective world in relation to self - person, place, time.
Perception awareness of objects through the five senses.
Resonance the sound elicited on percussion of the chest - medium/loud amplitude, low pitch, clear, hollow quality, moderate duration.
Tympany a resonant sound heard in percussion (as of the abdomen) - loud amplitude, high pitch, musical and drumlike quality, sustained and longest duration.
Dullness lacking in force, intensity, or acuteness - soft amplitude, high pitch, muffled quality, short duration, ex. dense organ like the spleen
Flatness very soft amplitude, high pitch, a dead stop of sound, very short duration, ex. when no air is present over a muscle, bone, or tumor
Alert awake or easily aroused, oriented, fully aware of external and internal stimuli and responds appropriately, conducts meaningful and interpersonal interactions.
Stupor (semi-coma) spontaneously unconcious, responds only to persistent and vigorous shaking or pain, has appropriate motor responses, otherwise can only groan, mumble, move restlessly, reflex activity persists.
Lethargic not fully alert, drifts off to sleep when not stimulated, can be aroused by name when called in normal voice but looks drowsy, responds appropriately to questions or commands but thinking seems slow and fuzzy, inattentive, loses train of thought
Coma completely unconcious, no response to pain or to any external or internal stimuli, light coma has some reflex activity but no purposeful movement, deep coma has no motor response
Delirium disturbance of conciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention, a change in cognition or the development of a perceptual disturbance, the disturbance develops over a short period of time and tends to fluctuate
Lateral recumbent position the posture assumed by the patient lying on the left side with the right thigh and knee drawn up AKA the Sim's position
Prone position laying on stomach
Supine position laying on back
Dorsal recumbent position the supine position with the person lying on the back, head and shoulders
Lithotomoy position supine with feet in stirrups, knees bent
Knee-chest position On hands and knees on bed with head down towards pillow.
Normocephalic a person whose head and all major organs of the head are in a normal condition and without significant abnormalities.
Lymphadenopathy term meaning "disease of the lymph nodes." It is, however, almost synonymously used with "swollen/enlarged lymph nodes".
Accommodation the process by which the eye increases optical power to maintain a clear image (focus) on an object as it draws near the eye.
Fixation maintaining the gaze in a constant direction
Presbyopia the condition where the eye exhibits a progressively diminished ability to focus on near objects with age.
Snellen eye chart an eye chart used by eye care professionals and others to measure visual acuity.
Pupillary light reflex dilation and contraction of pupil according to level of light.
Nystagmus a type of eye movement characterized by alternating smooth pursuit in one direction and saccadic movement in the other direction.
Cerumen yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and many other mammals. It plays an important role in the human ear canal, assisting in cleaning and lubrication, and also provides some protection from bacteria, fungi, and insects.
Presbycusis age-related hearing loss, is the cumulative effect of aging on hearing. Also known as presbyacusis, it is defined as a progressive bilateral symmetrical age-related sensorineural hearing loss. The hearing loss is most marked at higher frequencies.
Whispered voice test requires the examiner to stand an arms length behind the patient while whispering a combination of letters and numbers for the patient to then repeat.
Vertigo is a specific type of dizziness, a major symptom of a balance disorder. It is the sensation of spinning or swaying while the body is stationary with respect to the earth or surroundings.There are two types of vertigo
Malocclusion a misalignment of teeth and/or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. The upper arch is called the maxilla and the lower is called the mandible.
Rhinitis the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of some internal areas of the nose. The primary symptom is a runny nose.
Halitosis breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not.
Leukoplakia adherent white plaques or patches on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, including the tongue.
Bronchial breath sounds a normal sound heard over the main airways of the lungs, especially the trachea. Expiration and inspiration produce noise of equal loudness and duration, sounding like blowing through a hollow tube.
Bronchovesicular breath sounds sounds heard between the vesicular murmur and the bronchial tones.
Vesicular breath sounds very faint murmur.
Tactile fremitus vocal fremitus felt on the chest wall
Hypoxemia deficient oxygenation of the blood
Apnea cessation of breathing
Tachypnea very rapid respiration
Bradypnea Abnormal slowness of respiration
Eupnea normal respiration
Orthopnea Discomfort in breathing that is relieved by sitting or standing in an erect position
Adventitious sounds the rale, rhonchus, grunt, friction rub, laryngeal stertor, wheeze and peristaltic sounds.
Costovertebal angle the acute angle formed on either side between the twelfth rib and the vertebral column.
Pleural effusion occurs when too much fluid collects in the pleural space (the space between the two layers of the pleura). It is commonly known as "water on the lungs." It is characterized by shortness of breath, chest pain, gastric discomfort (dyspepsia), and cough.
Atelectasis collapse of lung tissue affecting part or all of one lung. This condition prevents normal oxygen absoption to healthy tissues.
Lobar pneumonia acute bacterial pneumonia with edema, usually in one lung.
Emphysema a chronic respiratory disease where there is over-inflation of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs, causing a decrease in lung function, and often, breathlessness.
Pneumothorax collection of air or gas in the chest or pleural space that causes part or all of a lung to collapse.
Pulmonary embolism an obstruction of a blood vessel in the lungs, usually due to a blood clot, which blocks a coronary artery.
Bronchophony an increase in the intensity and clarity of vocal resonance that may result from an increase in lung tissue density, such as in the consolidation of pneumonia. it is assessed by having the patient repeat a phrase such as 99 during auscultation.
Egophony A peculiar broken quality of the voice sounds, like the bleating of a goat, heard over lung tissue in cases of pleurisy with effusion.
Whispered pectoriloquy Transmission of the voice sound through the pulmonary structures so that it is unusually audible on auscultation of the chest, indicating either consolidation of the lung parenchyma or the presence of a large cavity.
Apex of the heart the blunt extremity of the heart formed by the left ventricle, the lowest superficial part of the heart, formed by the inferolateral part of the left ventricle.
Base of the heart the portion of the heart opposite the apex. It is superior and medially located.
Diastole The normal rhythmically occurring relaxation and dilatation of the heart chambers, especially the ventricles, during which they fill with blood.
Systole the contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
Edema condition of abnormally large fluid volume in the circulatory system or in tissues between the body's cells (interstitial spaces).
Palpitation Perceptible forcible pulsation of the heart, usually with an increase in frequency or force, with or without irregularity in rhythm.
Syncope a faint; temporary loss of consciousness due to generalized cerebral ischemia.
Precordium the region of the anterior surface of the body covering the heart and lower thorax.
Thrill The vibration accompanying a cardiac or vascular murmur, detectible on palpation.
Apical impulse any motion of the anterior wall of the thorax localized in the area over the heart.
Arrrythmia variation from the normal rhythm of the heartbeat, encompassing abnormalities of rate, regularity, site of impulse origin, and sequence of activation.
Cyanosis a physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes. Cyanosis is caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood.
Bruit an abnormal blowing or swishing sound or murmur heard while auscultating a carotid artery, the aorta, an organ, or a gland, such as the liver or thyroid, and resulting from blood flowing through a narrow or partially occluded artery.
Varicose vein a dilated, tortuous vein, usually in the subcutaneous tissues of the leg; incompetency of the venous valve is associated.
Created by: bethanne89