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wave a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place
wavelength the distance between two crests or two troughs
frequency the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time
hertz (Hz) unit of measurement to measure frequency
amplitude the height of the wave
vibration a repeated back-and-forth or up-and-down motion; the source of the wave
transverse waves waves that move the medium (solids, liquids, gases) in a direction perpendicular (right angles) to the direction in which the waves are traveling
longitudinal waves move the particles of the medium (solids, liquids, gases) parallel to the direction that the waves are traveling
surface waves waves that are a combination of transverse and longitudinal waves
crests the highest parts of a wave
troughs the lowest parts of a wave
rarefactions when the coils in longitudinal waves are spread out
compressions when the coils in longitudinal waves are close together
electromagnetic spectrum all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
reflection the bouncing back of a ray of light, sound, or heat when the ray hits a surface that it does not go through
refraction the bending of a wave as the wave passes between two substances in which the speed of the wave differs
electromagnetic waves a wave that consists of electric and magnetic fields that vibrate at right angles to each other
Doppler Effect The change in frequency or wavelength of a wave for an observer who is moving relative to the wave source. The effect of sound getting quicker and louder as the source approaches you.
absorption When light energy penetrates an object
transmission When light waves move all the way through a material & not absorbed
analog signal information converted to electrical form with continuous variations of information such as current or voltage
digital signal information converted to electrical form where the flow of information is in discrete form
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