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HM2 Child cancers

HM2 lilk8tob Childhood cancers

Most common leukemia in children, especially boys ALL
ALL stands for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
AML stands for Acute Mylocytic leukemia
In this acute leukemia, subtypes determine the prognosis and the treatment ALL
This acute leukemia has a good prognosis for kids, poor for adults ALL
In this leukemia, try chemo up to the 3rd relapse, then do BMT ALL
ALL: best dx if leukocytes are:, age:, gender: , chromosomes: leukocytes <50,000; 3-9 years old; female; >50 chromosomes
In ALL, pre-B cell subtype and FABL are: the best dx
In this acute leukemia, subtypes don't direct treatment AML
This acute leukemia is most common in adults AML
This acute leukemia has a poor prognosis for everyone AML
For this acute leukemia, do BMT on 1st remission AML
CLL stands for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
CML stands for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
This chronic leuk is very rare in kids, and is most common in men age 50+ CLL
This chronic leuk is caused by a neoplasm of activated B lymphocyte cells that accumulate in bone marrow lymph nodes and spleen CLL
CLL Signs and symptoms fatigue, GU symptoms, abd. pain, anemia
This chronic leuk has no treatment CLL
the progression of this chronic leuk is 9-15 years CLL
This leuk has the Philadelphia chromosome CML
In this chronic leuk, there is an excessive development of neoplastic granulocytes in bone marrow CML
The chronic phase of this leuk lasts 2-4 years, then it can go into a blastic phase that resembles AML CML
This chronic leuk uses drugs to avoid acute phase CML
The only curative treatment for CML: BMT
A chronic, progressive disorder c/b painless enlargement of lymph nodes w/ predictable progression to spleen, liver & bone marrow Hodgkin's lymphoma
This has the proliferation of Reed-Sternberg cells (they replace other cell elements) Hodgkin's lymphoma
In children w/ this, the "sentinel" node in the supraclavicular area is seen first Hodgkins
W/ Hodgkins, pain in the lymph node is experienced with ingesting: alcohol
Does Hodgkin's have a good long-term survival rate? Yes, with aggressive chemo and radiation
This is a malignancy of B&T lymphocytes Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)
This disease has a possible viral etiology Non-Hodgkins lymphoma
Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is seen more often in: immunocompromised pts
Age for Non-Hodgkins less than 14, over 40
Which Hodgkin's is harder to diagnose? Non-Hodgkins is
The less predictable of the hodgkis Non
Signs and symptoms of non-hodgkin's enlarged lymph nodes, night sweats, stomach cramps, constipation
This condition (increased uric acid levels) may occur with Non-Hodgkins Tumor lysis syndrome
Is an adult w/ low grade (slow progression) non-hodgkins more or less responsive to treatment? Less responsive
Location of brain tumors in children Below the Tentorium Cerebri
Location of brain tumors in adults Above the Tentorium cerebri
Big sign of brain tumor in adults: Headache because the skull can't swell
Big sign of brain tumor in children (and the reason) Enlarged head because fontanel and sutures allow the head to swell
Is "benign" a good thing for kid's brain tumors No- it really just depends on the location- if can't be reached, will kill surrounding tissue & cause problems
In kids, S&S of brain tumor: Morning vomiting, poor coordinatino, visual changes, increased ICP
Infant brain tumor S&S Irritability, poor feeds, increased head size, loss of developmental milestones
Adult brain tumor S&S HA when waking, N/V, visual changes, personality changes, seizures are common, papilledema of the optic nerve
Treatment of brain tumors: GAMMA knife - pinpoint radiatiion, chemo, brachytherapy
Radiation used for brain tumors after age: three
Treatment where you put the med or radioactive seed directly into brain: Brachytherapy
Things to warn family about before brain surgery: head shaved, large dressing, HOB 30 degrees
After brain surgery for tumor, watch for these two things: SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH) and Diabetes
Position to avoid after brain surgery: Trendelenburg
This is one of the worst tumors (in children only) because it is the hardest to find and treat Neuroblastoma
A neuroblastoma originates from: embryonic adrenal/sympathetic chain cells
What is the "silent tumor" Neuroblastoma because it is well metastasized before S&S
This tumor in children can randomly disappear on it's own somehow Neuroblastoma
Neuroblastoma is more common in (race & gender) White boys
This tumor is a firm non tender mass that WILL CROSS THE MIDLINE neuroblastoma tumor
If neuroblastoma found after 1 year, survival rate: 50%
This is the most common renal cancer Wilms tumor
This tumor has a peak incidence of 3 yrs old, and does have genetic inheritence Wilms tumor
This tumor does NOT CROSS THE MIDLINE Wilm's tumor
S&S of Wilm's tumor hematuria, anemia (from bleeding), HTN (from increased secretion of renin)
Wilm's tumor commonly metastasizes to the: lungs
If have Wilm's tumor, will remove: kidney and adrenal gland
Key nursing fact for pt with Wilm's tumor: Do not palpate the abdomen- can rupture the tumor!
Pt has Wilm's tumor- must monitor BP - have increased secretion of renin
This is a striated muscle tumor Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyosarcomas in young children are most often found: in the head, neck and eye orbit
Rhabdomyosarcomas in older children are most often found: in the trunk and extremities
Treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma chemo to reduce bulk, then surgery, radiation
If relapse within two years with rhabdomyosarcoma prognosis is very poor
Rhabdomyosarcoma survival rate 65%
Name the two bone tumors: Osteogenic sarcoma and ewing's sarcoma
This is the most common bone cancer Osteogenic sarcoma
When do osteogenic sarcomas peak (age)? Teen years- rapid bone growth
Treatment for Osteogenic sarcoma amputation of leg, attempt arm-sparing procedure
This tumor arises from bone forming mesenchyme malignant osteoid osteogenic sarcoma
S&S of osteogenic sarcoma limp, palpable mass, fractures
Osteogenic sarcoma usually located at distal femur and knee
Osteogenic sarcoma frequently metastizes to: lungs
This tumor arises in marrow spaces of bone and mimics infection Ewing's sarcoma
Peak age for ewing's sarcoma 10-20 years old
Metastasis for Ewing's: metastasis uncommon at diagnosis, but can occur to marrow and lungs
S&S of Ewing's pain and swelling around site, fever, limp/decreased ROM
Treatment of Ewing's Chemo to shrink tumor, surgery to resect primary tumor or radiation
This is a congenital malignant tumor that arises from the retina Retinoblastoma
A retinoblastoma results from A series of genetic mutations
Reflex seen in pts with retinoblastoma "Cat's eye" reflex- leukoria
S&S of retinoblastoma cat's eye, strabismus, pain, blindness
Metastasis common in retinoblastoma bone metastasis- so assess bone marrow
Treatment for retinoblastoma enucleation (eye removal) if optic nerve is involved, chemo only with metastatic disease
Type of counseling needed with retinoblastoma genetic counseling- is inherited (esp. the bilateral kind)
Created by: lilk8tob