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Chapter 3

Human Development

Chapter 3 Forming a New Life
How does conception normally occur? sperm fertilize the ovum
What causes multiple births? mother releases two eggs or fertilized ovum splits in two
most likely time to get pregnant fertile window
What is a gamete? sex cell
What is fertilization also called? conception
union of sperm of ovum to produce a zygote fertilization (or conception)
one celled organism resulting from conception zygote
male sex cell sperm
female sex cell ovum
How many ova does a girl have at birth? about 2 million
What is each ovum in? its own follicle (or small sac)
rupture of a mature follicle in either ovary and expulsion of its ovum ovulation
How often does ovulation occur? about once every 28 days
What are the tiny hairs in the fallopian tube? And where do they sweep the ovum to? cilica, toward the uterus
What produces sperm? testicles
How many sperm does the average male produce per day? several hundred million
What do sperm try to do after entering the vagina? swim through the cervix into the fallopian tubes to the ovum
What happens to the ovum and sperm if it is not fertilized? they die, sperm absorbed by white blood cells in woman's body, ovum passes through the uterus and exits vagina
Dizygotic twins are also known as what kind of twins? fraternal twins
Monozygotic twins are also known as what kind of twins? identical twins
twins conceived by the union of two different ovum with two different sperm cells (or one ovum that has split into two before fertilization) fraternal twins or dizygotic twins
Which types of twins are no more alike genetically than any other siblings? dizygotic (fraternal)
Which type of twins is genetically similar? monozygotic (identical)
twins resulting from the division of a single zygote after fertilization monozygotic twins or identical twins
How can monozygotic twins be different? temperament, left or right handed, genetic makeup
Which type of twins run in families? dizygotic twins
Which type of twins occurs by chance? monozygotic
What is the rare third type of twins called? How does it occur? semi-identical, two sperm fuse with one ovum
What are two reasons multiple births are happening more frequently? delayed childbearing, increased use of fertility drugs
What are risks of having multiple births with assisted production? pregnancy complications, premature delivery, low birth weight infants, disability, death of infant
How and when does fertilization normally take place? takes place during the fertile window when a sperm and ovum unite
What is the difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins? monozygotic come from one ovum, two sperm; dizygotic come from two ovum and two sperm
How do monozygotic twins come about? two sperm fertilize one ovum
How do dizygotic twins come about? two sperm fertilize two different ova
Give reasons for the increase in multiple births in the US. increase in assisted fertilization, delayed childbearing
the science of genetics the study of heredity
inborn factors inherited from biological parents that affect development heredity
What chemical is the basis for heredity? deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
What are the four basis of DNA? adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
chemical that carries inherited instructions for the development of all cellular forms of life deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
sequence of bases within the DNA molecule genetic code
governs the formation of proteins that determine the structure and functions of living cells genetic code
coils of DNA that consist of genes chromosomes
small segments of DNA located in definite positions on particular chromosomes genes
functional units of heredity genes
complete sequence of genes in the human body human genome
_ is the genetic material in all living cells. DNA
DNA consists of four chemical units called _. bases
The _ in a gene tells the cell how to make the proteins that enable it to carry out specific functions. sequence of bases
Every cell (except sex cells) in the human body has _ pairs of chromosomes, _ chromosomes total. 23, 46
How many chromosomes does each sex cell end up with? 23 chromosomes
process by which non-sex cells divide in half over and over again, how DNA replicates itself mitosis
type of cell division which sex cells undergo when they are developing meiosis
What a cell divides, does it have the same DNA structure as all the others? yes
When cells divide they do what? differentiate; specialize in a variety of complex bodily functions
How are heredity and environment related at conception? nutrition and stress can affect hormone levels in mother and baby
Does the mother or father's genetics determine the child's gender? fathers
At the moment of conception, 23 chromosomes from the sperm and 23 chromosomes from the ovum, do what? unite to make 23 pairs of chromosomes
22 pairs of chromosomes not related to sexual expression autosomes
1 pair of chromosomes that determines sex sex chromosomes
XX are the chromosomes for the normal human _. female
XY are the chromosomes for the normal human _. male
Every ovum has which chromosome, X or Y? X
Every sperm has which chromosome, X or Y? both
What is the gene for maleness? SRY gene
When do reproductive systems start to form in embryo? six to eight weeks after conception
How do the male sex organs start forming? hormones must signal the SRY gene which then triggers cell differentiation and formation of the testes
In mice, when the SRY gene was not signaled, what happened to male mice? they developed female genitals
What is the signaling molecule for the female reproductive system? Wnt-4
The activity of the extra X gene in women can explain what? gender differences, women are healthier, women live longer
Describe the structure of DNA. four bases make up the genetic code which governs the formation of proteins; thousands of bases from genes which are located on a specific spot of a chromosome; many chromosomes make up the DNA; the whole sequence of DNA makes up the human genome
What is the structure of the human genome from largest to smallest? human genome>DNA>chromosome>gene> (genetic code)>base
What is DNA's role in the inheritance of characteristics? determines traits the child will have
Distinguish between mitosis and meiosis. mitosis-how non-sex cells divide, meiosis- how sex cells divide
Who discovered patterns of inheritance by cross-breeding pea plants? Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk
two or more alternative forms of a gene that occupy the same position on paired chromosomes and affect the same trait alleles
possessing two identical alleles for a trait homozygous
possessing two different alleles for a trait heterozygous
pattern of inheritance in which, when a child receives different alleles, only the dominant one is expressed dominant inheritance
pattern of inheritance in which a child receives identical recessive alleles, resulting in expression of a nondominant trait recessive inheritance
pattern of inheritance in which multiple genes at different sites on chromosomes affect a complex trait polygenic inheritance
Are single traits affected by single genes or many genes? many genes
Traits can be affected by _. mutations
permanent alterations in genes or chromosomes that may produce harmful characteristics mutations
How many people have the same genotype? none, except for monozygotic twins
observable characteristics of a person phenotype
genetic makeup of a person, containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics genotype
The phenotype is the product of what two factors? genotype, relevant environmental influences
combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce certain complex traits multifactorial transmission
abnormal variant of a normal gene genetic predisposition
Explain how environmental factors can affect genetics (multifactorial transmission). person could be good at playing music but if not provided with instrument when younger or not encouraged to play music, musical ability may not be expressed
mechanism that turns genes on or off and determines functions of body cells epigenesis
According to scientists, are a child's genes firmly established before birth? no
What mechanism governs the functioning of genes? epigenesis
Does epigenesis affect DNA structure? no
chemical molecules attached to a gene, which alter the way a cell reads the gene's DNA epigenesis or epigenetic framework
"A code written in pencil in the margins around the DNA," describes what? epigenetic framework
Every cell in the body has a (same or different) DNA sequence; _ differentiates various types of body cells. same, epigenetic markers
When errors arise from epigenetic markers turning the wrong genes one or off, what can happen? birth defects or disease
Epigenetic markers can contribute to what common ailments? cancer, diabetes, heart disease
What environmental factors can affect epigenetic changes? nutrition, stress, physical activity, smoking
What is an example of epigenesis? genome imprinting
differential expression of certain genetic traits genome imprinting
In _, genetic information inherited from the parent of one sex is activated but genetic information from the other parent is not. imprinted gene pairs
gene that produces the same phenotype in the organism whether or not its allele identical dominant gene
gene that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical recessive gene
¬¬_ plays an important role in regulating fetal growth and development. imprinted genes
What happens when a normal pattern of imprinting is disrupted? abnormal fetal growth or congenital growth disorders
What percent of birth disorders affect live births? 3%
What percentage of deaths of infants occur in the first year? 19.5%
Are all genetic or chromosomal abnormalities apparent at birth? no
When do we most clearly see the operation of dominant and recessive transmission? genetic defects and diseases
Are normal genes always dominate over those caring abnormal traits? no, sometimes the abnormal trait is dominant
When one parent has a dominant abnormal gene and one recessive normal gene and the other parent has two recessive normal genes each of their children has a _ chance of inheriting the dominant abnormal gene? 50 – 50
_ are expressed only if a child receives the same recessive gene from each biological parent. recessive defects
Defects transmitted by (recessive inheritance or dominant inheritance) are more likely to be lethal at an early age. recessive inheritance
Pattern of inheritance in which a child receives two different alleles resulting in partial expression of a trait incomplete dominance
Give an example of incomplete dominance. people with only one sickle cell allele and one normal allele do not have sickle cell anemia, show some manifestations of the condition
pattern of inheritance in which certain characteristics carried on the X chromosome inherited from the mother are transmitted differently to her male and female offspring sex linked inheritance
parent does not have the disorder but can pass on the gene for it to her children carrier
Why are boys more vulnerable to receiving chromosome disorders? there is no opposite dominant gene on the shorter Y chromosome from the father to override a defect on the X chromosome from the mother
Why do chromosome abnormalities typically occur? errors in cell division that occur during meiosis, can result in extra or missing chromosome
Some chromosomal abnormalities occur in the _ during cell division. autosomes
Which syndrome accounts for 40% of all cases of moderate to severe mental retardation? And what chromosome does that usually occur on? Down syndrome, extra 21st chromosome or translocation of part of the 21st chromosome
What are obvious physical characteristics associated with the Down syndrome? downward sloping skin fold at the inner corners of the eyes
What happens to the brain of a Down syndrome child? appear normal at birth, shrink in volume by young adulthood, resulting in cognitive dysfunction
Chromosomal disorder characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation and by such physical signs of the downward sloping skin fold at the inner corners of the eyes Down syndrome
clinical service that advises prospective parents of their probable risk of having children with hereditary defects genetic counseling
a birth defect in which much of the baby's brain is missing and some of the internal organs are malformed anencephaly
a photograph that shows the chromosomes when they are separated and aligned for cell division karyotype
What material can a genetic counselor use to determine risk of prospective parents having abnormal children? blood, skin, urine, fingerprints, chromosomes
What does a genetic counselor do? tries to help clients understand the mathematical risk of a particular condition, explains its implications, presents information about alternative courses of action
Quantitative study of relative heredity and environmental influences on behavior behavioral genetics
a study that seeks to measure how much heredity and environment influence particular traits behavioral genetics
How many genes does the human genome have? between 20,000 and 25,000
the study of functions and interactions of the various genes genomics
the application of genetic information to therapeutic purposes medical genetics
an experimental technique for repairing or replacing defective genes gene therapy
What ethical issues are involved in genetic testing? privacy, fair use of genetic information
the misconception that a person with the gene for a disease is bound to get the disease genetic determinism
What can genetic testing tell us about a person getting a disease? only the likelihood
What are some concerns with genetic testing? psychological impact, testing of children, testing could be misused to justify sterilization, abortion of a normal fetus
statistical estimate of contribution of heredity to individual differences in a specific trait within a given population heritability
Does heritability refer to the relative influence of heredity and environment between populations or any particular individual? no, influences may be impossible to separate
Does heritability tell us how traits develop or to what extent they can be modified? no
What three types of correlational research do behavioral geneticists use? family, adoption, twins studies
In what study do researchers measure the degree to which biological relatives share certain traits and whether the closeness of the familial relationship is associated with the degree of similarity family studies
Can family studies rule out environmental influences? no
In what study do researchers look at similarities between adopted children and their adoptive families and also between the adopted children and their biological families? adoption studies
Which study compares pairs of monozygotic twins with same sex dizygotic twins? twins studies
In studies of twins, why are same sex twins used? to avoid confounding effects of gender
Term describing tendency of twins to share the same trait or disorder concordant
Even in a trait strongly influenced by heredity, the environment can have a _ impact. substantial
_ can sometimes overcome genetically determined conditions. Environmental inventions
Developmental scientists have come to regard a solely quantitative approach to the study of heredity and environment as _. simplistic
Instead of looking at genes and experience as operating directly on an organism, researchers see both as part of a complex _. developmental system
What factors can shape development? constitutional factors (related to biological and psychological makeup), social, economic, and cultural factors
potential variability depending on environmental conditions in the expression of a hereditary trait reaction range
Heredity can influence whether a reaction range is _. wide or narrow
Instead of a reaction range advocates of a developmental system model prefer to talk about a _. norm of reaction
What do advocates of a developmental system model argue? development is so complex and effects of differing environments so variable, these limits are unknowable and their effects unpredictable
limitation of expression of certain inherited characteristics canalization
Give an example of canalization. behaviors that depend largely on maturation appear only when a child is ready, such as motor development
Cognition and personality are more subject to _. variations in experience such as kinds of families children grow up in, schools they attend, people they encounter
_ experience can dig channels for development. usual or typical
the portion of phenotypic variation that results from the reactions of genetically different individuals to similar environmental conditions genotypic environment interaction
Give an example of genotype environment interaction. many people are exposed to pollen and dust that people with a genetic predisposition are more likely to develop allergic reactions
tendency of certain genetic and environmental influences to reinforce each other genotype environment correlation
_ may be passive, reactive (evocative) or active. genotype environment correlation
What is genotype environment correlation also called? genotype environment covariance
Genes influence a person's exposure to particular environments. The environment often _ genetic differences. reinforces
What are three ways to strengthen the phenotypic expression of a genotypic tendency? passive correlations, reactive correlations, active correlations
Parents who provide the genes that predispose a child toward a trait also tend to provide an environment that encourages the development of that trait passive correlation
Define the correlation: the child has no control over it. passive
children with differing genetic makeup evoke different reactions from adults reactive correlation
Define the correlation: parents react to the child's genetic makeup. reactive
as children get older and have more freedom to choose their own activities and environments, they actively seek or create experiences consistent with their genetic tendencies active correlation
tendency of a person, especially after early childhood, to seek out environments compatible with his or her genotype niche picking
the unique environment in which each child grows up consisting of distinctive influences or influences that affect one child differently than another non-shared environmental effects
According to behavioral geneticists what accounts for most of the similarity between siblings? Heredity
According to behavioral geneticists what accounts for most of the differences between siblings? non-shared environment
_ may play an important role in the non-shared environment. genotype environment correlations
What may influence how children perceive and respond to treatment and what its outcome will be? genes
Can genes influence lifespan? yes
extreme overweight in relation to age, sex, height and body type obesity
Is obesity a multifactorial condition? yes
What percentage of the risk of obesity is genetic and what percent is environmental influence attributed to? 40 to 70%
_ exerts a strong influence on general intelligence including specific abilities such as memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Heredity
What can intelligence depend upon? Brain size, brain structure, genetic control, experience
(Environmental influence or Heritability) is greater and (environmental influence or heritability) is lower among poor families than economically privileged families. Environmental influence, heritability
What is primarily responsible for the stability of cognitive performance? Does it increase with age? Genetic influence, yes
What age group does shared family environments seem to have a dominant influence on? Young children
What age group does shared family environment not have an influence on? Adolescences
_ environment is influential throughout life and is primarily responsible for changes in cognitive performance. Non-shared environment
characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to situations temperament
What is largely inborn and is often consistent over the years? Temperament
mental disorder marked by loss of contact with reality; symptoms include hallucinations and delusions schizophrenia
What are some mental disorders that show a strong hereditary influence? Schizophrenia, autism, alcoholism, depression
Can heredity alone produce mental disorders? Why? No, can be triggered by environmental factors
What can cause schizophrenia? Lack of reelin, neurological insults in fetal life, exposure to influenza, maternal rubella, respiratory infections in second or third trimester, obstetric complications, poor or severely deprived as result of a war or famine, advanced paternal age
period of development between conception and birth gestation
What are the three stages of prenatal development? Germinal, embryonic, fetal
What two stages occur during gestation? Embryo, fetus
Development proceeds according to what two fundamental principles? Growth and motor development occur from top down and from center of the body outward
age of an unborn baby usually dated from the first day of an expectant mothers last menstrual cycle gestational age
first two weeks of prenatal development characterized by rapid cell division, blastocyst formation, and implantation in the wall of the uterus germinal stage
What month of prenatal development: growth is more rapid than any other time during prenatal or postnatal life, embryo reaches 10,000 times greater size, blood flows, umbilical cord forms, miniscule heart one month
What month of prenatal development: embryo becomes a fetus, facial parts are clearly developed, arms, legs, thin covering of skin, bone cells appear, stomach produces digestive juices, react to tactile stimulation two months
What month of prenatal development: fingernails, toenails, eyelids, vocal cords, lips, prominent nose, sex can be detected, organ systems functioning, swallow amniotic fluid, ribs and vertebrae turned to cartilage, mouth can open, close, swallow three months
What month of prenatal development: body is catching up to the head, umbilical cord as long as fetus, placenta fully developed, fetus kicking, reflexive activities brisker four months
What month of prenatal development: individual personality, sleep wake patterns, favorite position, more active, heartbeat, respiratory system not adequate to sustain life outside world, baby born not usually survive, hair growing five months
What month of prenatal development: fat pads under the skin, eyes complete and moving, can hear, just with strong grip, if born only has slight chance of survival, breathing apparatus not matured six months
What month of prenatal development: fully developed reflex pattern, cries, breathe, swallows, head hair ma continue to grow, if born chances of survival are fairly good with intensive care seven months
What month of prenatal development: quarters are becoming cramped, movements are curtailed, layer of fat is developing over fetus’s body eight months
What month of prenatal development: fetus stops growing, fat pads continue to form, organ systems operating, heart rate increases, more waste expelled through umbilical cord, reddish color of skin fading nine months
What is the rapid period of cell division and duplication called that occurs within 36 hours of fertilization? Mitosis
How many cells make up the human body? 800 billion
As the fertilized ovum is dividing, where is it traveling? Through the fallopian tube to the uterus
a fluid filled spear which flows freely in the uterus until the sixth day after fertilization blastocyst
What percent of fertilized ova complete the task of implantation and continue to develop? 10 to 20%
Some cells around the edge of the blastocyst cluster on one site to form the _. Embryonic disc
a thickened cell mass from which the embryo begins to develops embryonic disc
The embryonic disc will differentiate into what three layers? Ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
the upper layer of the embryonic disc ectoderm
What does the ectoderm include? the outer layer of skin, nails, hair, teeth, sensory organs, and nervous system including the brain
What does the endoderm include? the lower layer of the embryonic disc, will become the digestive system, liver, pancreas, salivary glands, respiratory system
the lower layer of the embryonic disc endoderm
the middle layer of the embryonic disc mesoderm
What does the mesoderm include? the middle layer of the embryonic disc, will develop and differentiate into the inner layer of skin, muscles, skeleton and excretory and circulatory systems
What connects the embryo to the mother while in the uterus? Umbilical cord
What are the parts of the blastocyst cluster? Embryonic disc, amniotic sac, placenta, umbilical cord
fluid filled membrane that encases the developing embryo, protecting and giving it room to move and grow amniotic sac
allows oxygen, nourishment, ways to pass between the mother and embryo placenta
helps to combat an internal infection and gives the unborn child immunity to various diseases placenta
second stage of gestation (2 to 8 weeks), characterized by rapid growth and development of major body systems and organs embryonic stage
What is the critical period, when the embryo is most vulnerable to destructive influences in the prenatal environment? Embryonic stage
natural expulsion from the uterus of an embryo that cannot survive outside the womb spontaneous abortion
What is another name for spontaneous abortion? Miscarriage
the first three-month period of pregnancy first trimester
What amount of miscarriages occur during the first trimester? 3 out of 4
dead at or after the 20th week of gestation stillborn
final stage of gestation (from eight weeks to birth), characterized by increased differentiation of body parts and greatly enlarged body size fetal stage
During the fetal stage, the fetus grows to _ times its previous length. Organs and body systems become more _. 20, complex
Can fetuses feel pain? When can I start to feel pain? Yes but unlikely before the third trimester
prenatal medical procedure using high-frequency sound waves to detect the outline of a fetus and its movements, so as to determine whether a pregnancy is progressing normally ultrasound
Which gender a fetus is more active and moves more vigorously? Male
In a fetus, what can stimulate the budding senses of taste and smell and may contribute to the development of organs needed for breathing and digestion? Partaking of amniotic fluid
What suggests that fetuses can hear and feel? They respond to the mother's voice, heartbeat, vibrations of her body
Familiarity with the mother's voice may have been evolutionary survival function, what might that be? Help newborns locate the source of food
When do fetuses start to respond to sound and vibration? about 26 weeks
When does a fetus's response to sound and vibration plot though? about 36 weeks
can fetuses learn and remember before birth? Yes
capable of causing birth defects teratogenic
What is a normal amount of weight for a woman to gain during pregnancy? 14 to 40 pounds
What can make a difference with teratogenic factors? timing of exposure, the dose, duration, interaction
During pregnancy can gaining too little or too much weight be risky? Both can be risky
What is a risk of gaining too much weight during pregnancy? Baby needs to be delivered by cesarean section, more birth defects, complications of pregnancy, miscarriage, difficulty inducing labor
What is a risk of gaining too little weight during pregnancy? Baby can suffer growth retardation, be born prematurely, die at or near birth
What environmental influences can affect a fetus? Mother's weight, what mother eats, nutrition, drug intake, maternal illness, maternal anxiety, stress, maternal age, outside environmental hazards
What long-range effects can prenatal malnutrition have? Die early in adulthood, osteoporosis, fetal under nutrition, schizophrenia
What affect can medical drugs have on a fetus? birth defects when taken in first trimester
What medication can be taken by a pregnant or breast-feeding woman? None unless it is essential for mother's or child's health
What affect can alcohol have on a fetus? Mental retardation, disturbed infants neurological/behavioral functioning, emotional development, reduced skull and brain growth, reduced responsiveness just stimuli, slow reaction time, reduced visual activity
What effects can alcohol have on an infant or child? Short attention span, distractibility, restlessness, hyperactivity, learning disabilities, memory deficits, mood disorders, aggressiveness, problem behavior
combination of mental, motor, and developmental abnormalities affecting the offspring of some women who have drink heavily during pregnancy fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
If a child is affected with fetal alcohol syndrome, what are ways to make them less likely to develop behavioral and mental health problems? Diagnosed early, reared and stable nurturing environments
When should a woman start avoiding alcohol and can she resumed drinking? when she begins thinking about becoming pregnant and until she stops breast-feeding
What affect can nicotine have on a fetus? Low birth weight, miscarriage, growth retardation, stillbirth, small head circumference, sudden infant death, colic, hyperkinetic disorder, long-term respiratory problems, neurological/cognitive/behavioral problems
When can the effects of prenatal exposure to secondhand smoke be worse? When the child also experiences economic hardships, substandard housing, malnutrition, and adequate clothing
Is caffeine considered a teratogenic? No
When women consumed 2 cups of coffee during prenatal development, what risk did they have? Twice the risk of miscarriage
When women consumed 4 cups of coffee during prenatal development, what risk did they have? sudden death in infancy
What affect can marijuana have on a fetus? Birth defects, low birth weight, withdrawal symptoms, increase risk of attention disorders, learning problems, impaired attention, impulsivity, difficulty in use of visual and perceptual skills
What affect can cocaine have on a fetus? Spontaneous abortion, delayed growth, premature labor, low birth weight, small head size, birth defects, impaired neurological development, acute withdrawal symptoms, sleep disturbances, childhood behavior problems
One study found and no specific connection between prenatal cocaine exposure and _. Physical, motor, cognitive, emotional, behavioral deficits
What affect can methamphetamines have on a fetus? Low birth weight, small for gestational age, fetal growth restriction
viral disease that undermines effective functioning of the immune system Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
What illnesses and infections should perspective parents try to prevent? All interaction's including common cold, flu, urinary tract infection, STDs
virus crosses over to the fetuses bloodstream through the placenta during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or after birth through breast milk perinatal transmission
What affect can rubella have on a fetus? Deafness, heart defects
What symptoms does toxoplasmosis (a parasite from animals) have? No symptoms or common cold symptoms
What affect can toxoplasmosis have on a fetus? Fetal brain damage, severely impaired eyesight or blindness, seizures, miscarriage, stillbirth, death of the baby, eye infections, hearing loss, learning disabilities
What affect can diabetes have on a fetus? Birth defects, especially of the heart and spinal cord
Some tension and stress during pregnancy are _ and do not _ risk of birth complications. Some, increase
physical or psychological demands on a person or organism stress
Unusual maternal stress may _ affect the offspring. Negatively
What are some effects of an abnormal amount of stress on the mother? cleft lip, cleft palate, heart malformations, autism by deforming the developing brain
What affect can delayed childbearing have on a fetus? Miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, retarded fetal growth, birth defects, chromosome all abnormality
What affect can adolescent childbearing have on a fetus? Premature or underweight babies, heightened risk of death in first month, disabilities, health problems
What outside environmental hazards can affect prenatal development? Air pollution, chemicals, radiation, extremes of heat and humidity, other environmental hazards
What affect can outside environmental hazards have on a fetus? Premature, undersized abnormality, chromosomal abnormality, low birth weight, slowed fetal growth, asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, cancer, IQ deficit
What affect can dental x-rays have on a fetus? Mental retardation, small head size, chromosomal malformations, down syndrome, seizures, poor performance on IQ test/in school
What can cause a man's sperm to be abnormal or poor quality? Marijuana or tobacco smoke, alcohol, radiation, DES, pesticides, high ozone levels, occupation
What affect can a man's sperm have on a fetus? Low birth weight, slowed fetal growth
What affect can a pregnant woman's exposure to her father secondhand smoke have on a fetus? Low birth weight, infant respiratory infections, sudden infant death, cancer and childhood and adulthood
What affect can an older father’s sperm have on a fetus? Why? Dwarfism, schizophrenia, autism due to damaged or deteriorated sperm
What affect can a younger father’s sperm have on a fetus? Premature birth, low birth weight, small for just a show age
Are scientists able to detect an unborn baby's progress and well-being? Yes
Are scientists able to intervene and correct some abnormal conditions in a fetus? Yes
Why is early prenatal care important? Screaming for defects and diseases, can prevent maternal or infant death, other birth complications, information about pregnancy, childbirth, infant care
Why do rates of low birth weight and premature birth continued to rise? Increasing number of multiple births, benefits of prenatal care are not evenly distributed
Why is preconception care needed? Physical examinations, vaccinations, risk screening, counseling women on proper steps to take
How does conception normally occur? fertilization- union of sperm and ovum, form a one celled zygote, duplicated by cell division
What causes multiple births? fertilization of two ova (or one ovum that splits) or splitting of one fertilized ovum, more than two can result from either or both
Which twins have different genetic makeup? dizygotic (fraternal)
Which twins have the same genetic makeup? monozygotic (maternal)
How can monozygotic twins be different? temperament, etc.
How does heredity operate in determining sex? mother's ovum carries a X chromosome, father's sperm carries X or Y chromosome
How does heredity operate in transmitting normal and abnormal traits? different sequences on the DNA cause normal or abnormal traits
What are the basic functional units of heredity? genes
What are genes made of? DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
What does DNA do? carries the biochemical instructions that governs the development of cell functions
Why is each gene located in a specific place on a chromosome? located according to function
What is the complete sequence of genes in the human body called? human genome
How many chromosomes are received at conception? 23 from the mother, 23 from the father, total of 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs
How many pairs of chromosomes are autosomes? 22 pairs
How many pairs of chromosomes are sex chromosomes? 1 pair
XX would produce what gender child? female
XY would produce what gender child? male
What are the simplest patterns of genetic transmission? dominant inheritance, recessive inheritance
Homozygous or Heterozygous trait: a pair of alleles are the same. homozygous
Homozygous or Heterozygous trait: a pair of alleles are different heterozygous
Most normal human characteristics are the result of _. multifactorial transmission
Does each child inherit a unique genotype? most, but not monozygous twins
Does a person's phenotype always express the underlying genotype? Why? no, dominant inheritance and multifactorial transmission
_ controls the functions of particular genes. epigenetic framework
How can the epigenetic framework be affected? by environmental factors
What can birth defects and diseases be a result of? dominant, recessive or sex-linked inheritance, mutations, genome imprinting, chromosomal abnormalities
What can genetic counseling do? give prospective parents information about the mathematical odds of bearing children with birth defects
Does genetic testing involve risks or benefits? both
How do scientists study the relative influences of heredity and environment? behavioral genetics, family/adoption/twin studies
How do heredity and environment work together? reaction range, canalization, genotype-environment correlation, niche-picking
Research in behavioral genetics in based on what assumption? that relative influences of heredity and environment can be measured statistically
How can researchers measure the hereditability of a specific trait? family studies, adoption studies, twin studies
If _ is an important influence on a trait, then genetically closer people will be more _ in that trait. heredity, similar
Siblings tend to be more _ than _ in intelligence and personality. different, alike
What roles do heredity and environment play in physical health, intelligence and personality? obesity
What can be influenced by both heredity and environment? obesity, longevity, intelligence, temperament, other aspects of personality
_ is a highly heritable neurological disorder that can be environmentally influenced. Schizophrenia
What are the three stages of prenatal development? germinal, embryonic, fetal
What happens during germinal development? first two weeks of prenatal development, characterized by rapid cell division, blastocyst formation, implantation in the wall of the uterus
What happens during embryonic development? second stage of gestation, 2-8 weeks, characterized by rapid growth and development of major body systems and organs
What happens during fetal development? final stage of gestation, 8 weeks to birth, characterized by increased differentiation of body parts and greatly enlarged body size
What can happen to severely defective embryos during the first trimester? spontaneous abortion
As fetuses grow, what happens to their movement? move less but more vigorously
What might stimulate the taste and smell to a fetus? swallowing amniotic fluid
What can fetuses start to mentally do before birth? hear, exercise sensory discrimination, learn, remember
What environmental influences can affect prenatal development? nutrition, smoking, alcohol, drugs, transmission of maternal illness or infection, stress, age, external environmental hazards, chemicals, radiation
Can a developing organism be greatly affected by its prenatal environment? yes
Can external influences affect the father’s sperm? yes
What can depend on the likelihood of a birth defect with environmental factors? timing and intensity of environmental event and interaction with genetic factors
What techniques can assess a fetus is health? ultrasound, sonoembryology amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, fetoscopy, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, umbilical cord sampling, maternal blood test
Why is prenatal care important? can lead to detection of defects and disorders, reduce maternal and infant death, low birth weight, other birth complications
What could preconception care for every woman of childbearing age do? increase chances of good pregnancy outcomes
Created by: love_fire_roses