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Sci 10 Bio Review

Bio Review for Ms. Lawrence 2021

TermDefinition
Nucleus the location of the genetic material (DNA). The command and control centre for all cellular activities.
Ribosomes Responsible for following the instructions of mRNA and producing proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum szAAn internal transport network to move molecules around the cell and the site of protein production by the ribosomes.
Differences between DNA and mRNA DNA is double stranded – RNA is single stranded DNA contains the nitrogenous base Thymine – RNA contains the nitrogenous base Uracil
Chromatin Chomatin is loosely coiled DNA (much like a bowl of spaghetti) and is the form DNA is normally in during much of a cell’s life cycle (Interphase).
Chromosome Chromosomes are the lager structures that the DNA scrunches itself up into when the cell is getting ready to divide/reproduce. A chromosome is a tightly-packed collection of DNA.
Haploid Haploid means a single copy of each chromosome.
Diploid Diploid means two copies of each chromosome.
Gametes Gametes are the sex cells (sperm, eggs, and pollen) that are created by sexually reproducing organisms.
Somatic Cells Somatic cells are the body cells that make up all multicellular life forms.
Protein A protein is a large molecule made up of a long, twisting chain of amino acids. The shape of a protein dictates which cells it interacts with (like a key opens only certain doors) and what it does in the cells it can interact with.
What do Proteins do?` Proteins are everything. We are built from them, they run the thousands of chemical reactions that make life work (enzymes), they are oxygen carriers, chemical messengers (hormones), and many, many other jobs. A better questions is what don’t proteins do!
Protein Synthesis Ms. Hampton forgot the definition but will change this when she remembers
Complementary Base Pairs of DNA Adenine pairs with Thymine Cytosine pairs with Guanine
Base Pairs of mRNA Adenine pairs with Uracil Cytosine pairs with Guanine
What is the importance of the AUG codon in mRNA? AUG is methionine, the ‘START’ codon that signals to the ribosomes to begin building a protein from amino acids.
What are the three different mRNA STOP (termination) codons UAA, UAG, and UGA
What is the anticodon for the codon CGU? GCA
What is the anticodon for the codon CGC? GCG
What is the anticodon for the codon CGA? GCU
What is the anticodon for the codon CGG? GCC
What is the anticodon for the codon AGA? UCU
What is the anticodon for the codon AGG? UCC
What is the amino acid sequence in the protein synthesized when A U G G G A U U U C U C G G A A A A U U C A G G U A A is read by the ribosome? Methione - Glycine - Phenytalanine - Leucine - Glycine - Lysine - Phenytalanine - Arginine - STOP
For the DNA gene T A C G T A C T G C G C A A G A A T A T C, what is the nucleotide squence in mRNA? What is the amino acid sequence in the protein? What are the anti codons for the tRNA? A U G - C A U - G A C - G C G - U U C - U U A - U A G Met – His – Asp – Gly – Phe – Leu - STOP U A C - G U A - C U G - C G C - A A G - A A U - A U C
Mutation A mutation is simply a change in the sequence of base pairs (letters) in DNA or RNA.
Types of Mutations Frameshift Mutations... the addition of a base (addition mutation) or removal of a base (deletion mutation), or changes can be point mutations... a wrong base in the wrong place (substitution mutation). Such changes can change the trait the gene codes for
Effects of Mutations A positive effect – benefitting the organisms and making surviving and mating more likely. A neutral effect – no real effect on the organism. (MOST COMMON) A negative effect – hurts the organism or even kills it.
Mutagen A mutagen is any substance or form of energy that causes mutations in DNA. Examples include certain chemicals, drugs, Ultraviolet light, radiation, etc.
For the DNA sequence T A C C G C A A T G C T T G A G G C, what type of mutation, if any, has occurred in the DNA sequence A T G G C G T T A C G A A C T C C G None. This is just replication
For the DNA sequence T A C C G C A A T G C T T G A G G C, what type of mutation, if any, has occurred in the DNA sequence A U G G C G U U A C G A A C U C C G None. This is Transcription to mRNA
For the DNA sequence T A C C G C A A T G C T T G A G G C, what type of mutation, if any, has occurred in the DNA sequence T A C C G C A A A G C T T G A G G C Substitution
For the DNA sequence T A C C G C A A T G C T T G A G G C, what type of mutation, if any, has occurred in the DNA sequence T A C G C A A T G C T T G A G G C Deletion
Webbed fingers is inherited as an X-linked disease. An unaffected male marries an affected female. List the phenotypes of the possible children. All girls will be normal, all boys will have webbed fingers.
Colourblindness is inherited as a sex-linked recessive disease. If a heterozygous female marries an unaffected male, what are the genotypes of the possible offspring? Homozygous Unaffected Female, Heterozygous Female, Colourblind Male, Unaffected Male
Hairy ears is inherited as a Y-linked trait (meaning the mutated gene is located only on the Y-chromosome). A man with hairy ears marries a woman with normal ears. Could any of their children have hairy ears? Yes. In fact all male children will have hairy ears, but none of the female children will.
In dogs, deafness is inherited as an autosomal recessive gene. If a male dog is heterozygous for deafness, can this trait be ‘bred out’ of the family line? If so, how? If not, why? Yes, it can be bred out. Breeding the male in question with, ideally, a homozygous female. All offspring would be able to hear, and through further breeding the heterozygotes could be separated from the homozygous dominant individuals.
Baldness is inherited as sex-linked dominant disease. An affected male marries a homozygous recessive female. List the phenotypes of the possible children. All females will be affected. All males will be unaffected.
Natural Selection Natural selection is when the forces of nature (temperature, moisture, winds, sea level, predators, sunlight, food sources, snow depth, etc., etc., etc.) influence which individuals in a given population survive and reproduce.
Artificial Selection Artificial selection occurs when humans decide who lives and who dies, and more importantly, who breeds with whom to build up traits we decide are desirable. Traits such as muscle mass, milk production, seed size, cute face, etc. etc.
Advantages of Artificial Selection Ms. Hampton forgot but will change this when she remembers
Disadvantages of Artificial Selection Ms. Hampton forgot but will change this when she remembers
What does it mean for a species to go extinct? Extinction means that every individual on Earth of a particular species has died off.
What is a mass extinction? A mass extinction is when a large portion of ALL the living things on Earth have gone extinct.
What might cause a mass extinction? There have been 5 mass extinctions in Earth’s past, caused by meteorite impacts, massive amounts of volcanic activity, and rapid rises or rapid drops in sea level.
What are the advantages of genetic engineering? Ms. Hampton forgot but will change this when she remembers
What are the disadvantages of genetic engineering? Ms. Hampton forgot but will change this when she remembers
Which type mutation will have the greatest phenotypic effect? Any frameshift mutation (deletion or addition) will potentially cause all codons from that point on to be altered, coding for many incorrect amino acids.
In sexually reproducing organisms, an individual receives one set of instructions from each parent for a given trait. If the instructions don’t agree (for example, tongue-rolling ability vs. not being able to roll your tongue), how is this resolved? The dominant trait ‘overrules’ the recessive trait, and if the individual has at least one dominant allele, then they will show the dominant trait. The only way a recessive trait can be seen is if the individual has two copies of the recessive allele
What is a Punnett Square? A Punnett Square is a simple diagram that is used to predict the chances that offspring will have a given phenotype (trait you can see) and genotype (the combination of genes behind the trait), given the known genotypes of the parents.
Created by: dbhampton
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