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Anatomy Exam 3

Articulation, Muscles, Appendicular and Axial muscles

Articulation The meeting point between two bones
Fibrous Joint NO joint cavity. Bones are held together by dense regular connective tissue
Cartilaginous Joint No joint cavity. Bones are held together by cartilage
Synovial Joint Fluid-filled cavity. Separates surfaces of bones. Bones are attached to each other by ligaments
Synarthrosis Joint Immobile joint Two types of fibrous, One type of cartilaginous
Amphiarthrosis Joint Slightly mobiel joint One type fibrous, One type cartilaginous
Diarthrosis Joint Freely mobile joint All synovial joints
Synarthroses (immovable) These are fixed or fibrous joints. They’re defined as two or more bones in close contact that have no movement. The bones of the skull are an example. The immovable joints between the plates of the skull are known as sutures.
Amphiarthroses (slightly movable) Also known as cartilaginous joints, these joints are defined as two or more bones held so tightly together that only limited movement can take place. The vertebrae of the spine are good examples.
Diarthroses (freely movable) Also known as synovial joints, these joints have synovial fluid enabling all parts of the joint to smoothly move against each other. These are the most prevalent joints in your body. Examples include joints like the knee and shoulder.
Ball and Socket Joint Permitting movement in all directions, the ball and socket joint features the rounded head of one bone sitting in the cup of another bone. Examples include your shoulder joint and your hip joint.
Hinge Joint The hinge joint is like a door, opening and closing in one direction, along one plane. Examples include your elbow joint and your knee joint.
Condyloid Joint The condyloid joint allows movement, but no rotation. Examples include your finger joints and your jaw.
Pivot Joint The pivot joint is characterized by one bone that can swivel in a ring formed from a second bone. Examples are the joints between your ulna and radius bones that rotate your forearm, and the joint between the first and second vertebrae in your neck.
Gliding Joint The gliding joint is also called the plane join. Although it only permits limited movement, it’s characterized by smooth surfaces that can slip over one another. An example is the joint in your wrist.
Saddle Joint Although the saddle joint does not allow rotation, it does enable movement back and forth and side to side. An example is the joint at the base of your thumb.
Articular Cartilage Highly specialized connective tissue of diarthrodial joints. Provides a smooth, lubricated surface for articulation and to facilitate the transmission of loads with a low frictional coefficient
Synovial Fluid Reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement
Lever Elongated rigid object that rotates around a fixed point or fulcrum
Fulcrum the middle between the effort and resistance
Skeletal Muscle Voluntary movement. Produces heat. Protects organs
Cardiac Muscle Involuntary movement. Contracts to pump blood to and from the heart
Smooth Muscle Involuntary movement. Makes food. Involuntary control of respiration, moves secretions, regulates flow of blood in arteries by contraction
5 Major Functions of Skeletal Muscle Body movement. Maintenance of posture. Protection and support. Regulating elimination. Heat production
Myofibril Tiny parallel threads
Muscle Fiber Thousands of tiny parallel threads of myofibrils
Fascial Muscle fibers bundled together
Muscle Fascicles bundled together
Endomysium Areolar tissue that insulates and surrounds each fiber/cell
Perimysium Dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds each fasicle
Epimysium Dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole skeletal muscle
Sarcolemma Plasma membrane
T-Tubule Invaginations of the sarcolemma
Sarcoplasmic reticulum Internal membrane which fits around the myofibril like a sleeve
Sarcoplasm The cytoplasm of striated muscle cells
Thick filaments Made from bundles of myosin. Each myosin has two strands; a globular head and an elongated tail. The head can bind to actin, Thread is also where ATP is converted to ADP and Pi
Thin filaments Made from two strands of actin. Can bind to myosin. Tropomyosin and troponin are regulatory proteins associated with the actin. They prevent myosin from binding to the actin
Understand what the job of the troponin/tropomyosin complex is They prevent myosin from binding to the actin
Be familiar with a motor unit and understand how motor units change as we age and recognize what impact this has on our fine motor skills
Created by: lexier
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