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PBS Unit 4.4.


Amino group A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
Carboxyl group A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
Codon A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
Exon A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns.
Gene A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA.
Hydrophilic Having an affinity for water
Hydrophobic Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
Hydroxyl group A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
Intron A non-coding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA and attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm; it specifies the primary structure of a protein.
Mutation A rare change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Nucleotide The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Primary Structure The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
Quaternary Structure The particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
Ribosome A cell organelle that functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of ribosomal RNA and protein molecules, and is formed by combining two subunits.
Secondary Structure The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between amino acids.
Tertiary Structure Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
Transcription The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
Translation The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of language from nucleotides to amino acids.
Created by: connie king