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Unit 4 Vocab..

7-5 Petersen: Unit 4 Ch.10-13 (Europe)

Classical The ancient,very old,era(time span) Rome and Greece era/time period.
polis Greek term for "city state" (city & surrounding area--a 'mini-country')
democracy A type of government - leaders rule & elected by the citizens (the U.S.A. has a Federal Republic ---NOT a democracy)
republic strong national government headed by elected leaders
consul The elected chief official of the Roman Republic
emperor (king) ruler of an empire
pope head of the Roman Catholic Church for the entire world (Pope lives in Vatican City, an enclave in Italy)
missionary a person who goes to regions around the world to teach others about his or her religion
common law the UNWRITTEN laws that come from LOCAL CUSTOMS- the laws that are so common that everyone knows them
feudalism During the Middle Ages also called(Medieval Times,Dark Ages)a POLITICAL&SOCIAL SYSTEM developed consisting of a king,vassals (noble/lords),knights, serfs(peasants-social position did not change (serfs would always be poor--no chance to improve life style)
vassal Is a noble(lord) who would receive land from a feudal lord in exchange for loyalty and military service --he got land, but had to pay for it by serving in the military & could get killed
manor A feudal estate (large land area)
serf farm laborer who could be bought and sold along with the land-like a slave
guild Medieval term - the name given to the organizations of the workers (artist guild or music guild)
charter written agreement (contract) containing rights, privleges and freedoms (similar to a constitution)
indulgences currency or some type of payment to the Catholic Church to pardons your sins- the Catholic Church became wealthy--this led to the Reformation (reform the church)
revolution a great and often violent change - ex. a group who takes over government by force
divine right of kings belief that European kings and queens ruled by the will of God
productivity a measure of how much work can be done in a certian length of time
human resources a person's capabilities/skills/talents to produce a product
textiles woven cloth/fabric
cottage industry a business in the home-family members make goods/products using their own equiptment-like cloth or furniture
union a group of workers (labor organization) who bargain/negotiate with the factory owners to get better working conditions & more salary, but they have to pay dues (fees)to belong
strike union workers refusal to work until they get better conditions & more money are met/given-(owners usually can't get more workers)
imperilism taking over another country for military & trade advantages (using the people and resources for their economic gain/profit)
communism a government system in which most property & business is owned by the government-(gov. controls society/people & economy) has a command economy
Holocaust the killing of over 6 million Jews & 6 milion others during WWII by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis (Germany)
genocide the mass murder of a whole people because of their race, religion, ethnicity, politics or culture
Cold War a global competition (for the most power) between the democratic US and its allies and the Communist Soviet Union (Soviets/USSR) and its supporters (late 1940's-1880's) verbal threats of nuclear war
nuclear weapons weapons that use atomic reactions to release enormous power and can cause mass destruction (ex. bombing of Japan)
detterence something used to deter or discourage-like threatening to use a nuclear missile
satellite nation a country who is politically & economically dominated or controlled by a more powerful country
blockade to close off by force-to block the entrance
airlift a system of carrying supplies by aircraft
euro common currency/money of the European Union member countries
multilingual able to speak several languages
moor treeless, windy highland areas with damp ground
parlimentary democracy a form of government where voters elect representatives to a lawmaking body called Parliament
peat plants partly decayed in water which can be dried and used for fuel
bog low swampy lands
navigable waterways that are wide and deep enought for the passage of ships
federal republic when a national government and state government share powers
reunification returning all of the parts into one big part
continental divide a high place from which rivers flow in different directions
heavy industry industry that produces manufactured goods such as machinery (bulldozer, tractor)
fjord long, narrow, often deep inlet of the sea, lying between steep cliffs - west coast of Norway
sauna wooden rooms heated by water sizzling on hot stones
geyser spring that shoots hot water (like a natural fountain) that is heated by hot rocks below the crust (of the Earth) and steam into the air
geothermal energy heat produced by natural underground sources, to heat homes etc.
sirroco hot, dry winds that blow north across the Mediterranean Sea and Italy from North Africa
coalition government a government where two or more political parties work together to run the country
neutrality refusing to take sides in disagreements and wars between countries
dry farming no irrigation is used; the land is left unplanted every few years so that it can store moisture.
welfare state a country that uses high rates of taxation to provide services to people who are sick, needy, jobless or retired - ex. Sweden
polder land reclaimed from the sea (keeping land from washing out to sea
autobahn superhighway in Europe - no speed limits
constitutional monarchy government in which a king or queen is the official head of the country but has little power and elected officials run the government
multinational company a business that works in several countries - ex. McDonalds and Polo clothing
bog low swampy lands
communist state a state/country in which the government has strong control over the economy and society
acid rain rain containing chemical pollutants
pope head of the Roman Catholic Church around the world
landlocked a country that has no sea or ocean bordering it
nomads people who move from place to place often with herds of animals (possibly mad because they have no permanent home :)
spa resort with hot mineral springs for bathing- some think that the hot minerals improve their health
privatize when factory ownership transfers from the government to individual/private citizens (opposite of nationalize)
consumer goods products made for people to use/to consume
ethnic cleansing forcing people from a different ethnic group to leave their homes -by genocide or forced emigration
refugee the person who must flee to another country to escape danger or disaster
mosque Muslim house of worship - religion Islam--holy book Koran
steppe grassy plain- semiarid/partly dry-often next to deserts (steppe next door to the desert)
potash mineral used in fertilizer
Created by: petersen123



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