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abiotic factor Non-living factors of the environment that an organism lives in (ex. sun, water, air, soil)
aphotic Not having light; darkness
aquaculture The farming of saltwater and freshwater organisms (i.e. shrimp farms)
benthos Organisms that live on, near or in the ocean floor
bioluminescence The production of non-thermal light by creatures converting chemical energy to light energy to lure prey, attract a mate, or assist in keeping a species together. ~75% of creatures glow
biotic factor The living organisms of the environment
brackish water water with a level of salinity between freshwater and seawater
chemosynthesis a process used by some bacteria near the hydrothermal vents to generate energy from methane and hydrogen sulfide
continental shelf Extends from the edge of the continent outward to where the bottom sharply drops off into a steep slope
continental slope The steep incline between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain; also thought of as the "true" edge of the continent;
Deep Zone Complete darkness; freezing temps (3.5 degrees Celsius); b/c it's so cold, little change in salinity & density; crushing pressure
environmental filter Living organisms (plants & animals) that "clean" water through natural processes [ex. oysters filter out water as they eat collecting contaminants in their bodies]
environmental impact The effect of an event on the landscape and ecology of the surrounding area
estuary Body of water where freshwater meets saltwater
hydrothermal vent An opening in the sea floor where superheated water, gases, and other nutrients are released into the surrounding seawater
intertidal zone The area that lies between the low-tide and the high-tide line
mid-oceanic ridge A chain of undersea mountains that circles the Earth through every ocean
nekton Free-swimming organisms move all through the water column and are independent of the tides, currents and waves
neritic zone The first 200m of ocean water that extends outward from shore and covers most of the continental shelf; warm, much light, diverse with plants and animals
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
oceanic zone area of water over deep areas beyond the continental shelf; begins from the end of the neritic zone moving outward
oceanography The study and exploration of the world's oceans
open-ocean the area of the ocean outside of coastal areas
photic Having light
phytoplankton microscopic algae that float in water and are carried by waves and currents. Phyto (think PHOTOSYNTHESIS)
salinity The amount of dissolved salts in seawater
seafloor spreading A process by which new rock is added to the ocean floor along the boundary of diverging plates
SONAR SOund NAvigation Ranging - used to measure ocean depth by sending sound to bounce off the ocean floor
Sunlight Zone the top layer of the ocean where there is a lot of sunlight, temperature, density, and salinity are variable; warmest layer; more than 90% of all marine life lives here
Transition Zone the middle layer of the ocean; temperature & pressure change drastically with increasing depth; top of the zone has very dim light to no light, between depths of about 200m and 1000m
trench The deepest parts of the ocean. The deepest one is the Marianas Trench (located in the S. Pacific Ocean - almost 5 miles deep)
upwelling The movement of cold water upward from the deep ocean that is caused by wind. This brings up tiny organisms, minerals & nutrients to come from deepest parts of ocean
zooplankton tiny animals found near the surface in aquatic environments, weak swimmers- usually just drift with waves & currents -forms the base of aquatic food webs
Created by: jhandy8
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