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BIO 223 LAB 5

Articulations and Muscle

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Extends obliquely, superiorly, and posteriorly from the anterior intercondyler eminence of the tibia to the medial side of the lateral femoral condyle
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Extends superiorly and anteriorly from the posterior intercondyler eminence to the lateral side of the medial condyle
Medial (tibial) Collateral Ligament Thickening of the lateral capsule from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial surface of the tibia
Lateral (fibular) Collateral Ligament Round ligament extending from the lateral femoral epicondyle to the head of the fibula
Medial Meniscus Fibrocartilage semicircular band that spans the knee joint medially, located between the medial condyle of the femur and the medial condyle of the tibia
Lateral Meniscus Fibrocartilaginous band that spans the lateral side of the interior of the knee joint. It is nearly circular and covers a larger portion of the articular surface than the medial
Patellar Tendon Thick, heavy, fibrous band between the patella and the tibial tuberosity: actually part of the quadriceps femoris tendon
Acromioclavicular Ligament Divided into two parts: superior and inferior. It holds distal end of the clavicle to the acromion process on the scapula
Coracoclavicular Ligament Connects coracoid process of scapula to the clavicle (aka trapezoid and conoid ligaments)
Coracoacromial Ligament Broad triangular ligament attached to the outer edge of the coracoid process and acromion process of the scapula
Glenohumeral Ligaments Three slightly thickened longitudinal sets of fibers on the anterior side of the capsule; extend from the humerus to the margin of the glenoid cavity
Iliofemoral Ligament Strong, thick Y-shaped band between the anterior inferior iliac spine and the intertrochanteric line of the femur
Pubofemoral Ligament Extends from the pubic portion of the acetabular rim to the inferior portion of the femoral neck
Ischiofemoral Ligament Bridges the ischial acetabular rim and the superior portion of the femoral neck
Neuromuscular Junction (or Synapse) The point of contact of motor neuron axon branches with muscle fiber
Sarcolemma The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber
Sarcoplasm The cytoplasm of striated muscle cells
Myofibrils Bundles of protein filaments. A threadlike structure that extends the length of the muscle fiber, each containing two kinds of long, thin protein filaments (myofilaments): Actin and Myosin
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum The smooth endoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle fibers
T (transverse) Tubules Lying adjacent to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, these are tubelike invaginations of the sarcolemma that occur at regular intervals along the muscle fiber and extend inward, connecting the extracellular environment with the interior of the muscle fiber
Sarcomere The basic structural and functional unit of skeletal muscle because it is the smallest portion of skeletal muscle capable of contracting. Structures called Z disks separate one from the next
Z Line (disk) Structure that separates one sarcomere from the next. Filamentous network of protein that forms a stationary anchor for the attachment of actin myofilaments
M Line A dark line in the middle of the H zone consisting of delicate filaments that attach to the center of the myosin myofilaments. It helps hold the myosin myofilaments in place, similar to the way the Z disk holds actin myofilaments in place
A Band (Anisotropic band) Dark-staining band between two I bands in the center of each sarcomere. It extends the entire length of the myosin myofilament within a sarcomere. The actin and myosin myofilaments overlap for some distance at both ends of this band
H Zone Small band in the center of each A band where the actin and myosin do not overlap and only myosin myofilaments are present
I Band (Isotropic band) Light-staining band to either side of the Z line, extending to the ends of the myosin myofilaments, and consisting only of actin myofilaments
Occipitofrontalis Draws the scalp posteriorly and anteriorly and raises the eyebrows. Has both a frontal and occipital portion
Orbicularis Oris Closes and protrudes lips; used in whistling and forming many letters during speech; the "kissing muscle"
Zygomaticus Major Draws angles of the mouth upward and outward (elevates and abducts upper lip); major muscle used in smiling and laughing
Buccinator Retracts angle of the mouth; flattens cheek
Mentalis Elevates and wrinkles skin over chin; protrudes lower ip
Platysma Depresses lower lip; wrinkles skin of neck and upper chest
Orbicularis Oculi Closes the eye
Masseter Elevates and protracts mandible; involved in excursion
Temporalis Elevates and protracts mandible; involved in excursion
Rectus Abdominus Flexes and rotates vertebral column; compresses abdomen
External Oblique Flexes and rotates vertebral column; compresses abdomen; depresses thorax
Internal Oblique Flexes and rotates vertebral column; compresses abdomen; depresses thorax
Transverse Abdominus Compresses abdomen
Sternocleidomastoid One contracting alone: laterally flexes head and neck to same side and rotates head and neck to opposite side Both contracting together: flex neck
Diaphragm Inhalation depresses floor of thorax
External Intercostals Quiet inhalation elevates ribs
Internal Intercostals Forced exhalation depresses ribs
Subclavius Fixes clavicle or elevates first rib
Pectoralis Minor Depresses scapula or elevates ribs
Serratus Anterior Rotates and protracts scapula; elevates ribs
Trapezius Elevates, depresses, retracts, rotates, and fixes scapula; extends neck
Lavator Scapulae Elevates, retracts, and rotates scapula; laterally flexes neck
Rhomboid Major Retracts, rotates, and fixes scapula
Rhomboid Minor Retracts, slightly elevates scapula; elevates ribs
Errector Spinae Group of muscles on each side of the back consisting of three subgroups
Iliocostalis Extends vertebral column
Longissimus Capitis: extends head; Cervicis: extends neck; Thoracis: extends vertebral column
Spinalis Thoracis Extends vertebral column
Linea Alba Midline tendinous seam joining the abdominal muscles
Aponeurosis of External Oblique Structure that forms superficial inguinal ring
Lumbodorsal Fascia Fibrous tissue covering muscles of the back of the trunk (helps separate muscles)
Epicranial Aponeurosis Like a thin helmet beneath the scalp, and provides the attachment sites for the occipitofrontalis muscle, a muscle that controls the eyebrows and facial expressions
Frontalis function Raises eyebrows Wrinkles forehead
Occipitalis function Tenses and retracts scalp
Orbicularis Oris function Compresses and purses lip
Zygomaticus Major function Retracts and elevates the corner of the mouth
Buccinator function Compresses cheek
Mentalis function Elevates and protrudes lip
Platysma function Tenses skin of neck Depresses mandible Pulls lower lip down
Orbicularis Oculi function Closes eye
Masseter function Elevates mandible Closes jaw
Temporalis function Elevates mandible
Rectus Abdominus function Depress ribs Flexes vertebral column
External Oblique function Compresses abdomen Depresses ribs Flexes or bends spine
Internal Oblique function Compresses abdomen Depresses ribs Flexes or bends spine
Transversus Abdominus function Compresses abdomen Depresses ribs Flexes or bends spine
Sternocleidomastoid function Flexes neck
Diaphragm function Expands thoracic cavity Compresses abdominopelvic cavity
Internal Intercostals function Depresses ribs
External Intercostals function Elevates ribs
Subclavius function Depresses and protracts shoulder
Pectoralis Minor function Depresses and protracts shoulder Rotates scapula so glenoid cavity moves inferiorly
Serratus Anterior function Protracts shoulder Rotates scapula so glenoid cavity moves superiorly
Trapezius function Extends clavicle Extends neck
Levator Scapulae function Elevates scapula
Rhomboid Major function Adducts scapula and performs downward rotation
Rhomboid Minor function Adducts scapula and performs downward rotation
Iliocostalis function Extends vertebral column
Longissimus function Extends vertebral column
Spinalis Thoracis function Extends vertebral column
Created by: Mzalishab29
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