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motions definitions

m d

speed The measure of distance traveled per unit of time; how fast something is moving; distance divided by time
velocity Speed in a given direction
displacement The change in position from an object’s original location
distance The amount of ground an object has covered during its motion
acceleration The rate of change in an object’s velocity or speed
deceleration Slowing down; negative acceleration
Flat line on distance and time graph stopped
Zero on distance and time graph Starting position
Flat line on velocity and time graph Steady speed
Zero on velocity and time graph stopped
3 ways velocity can change If speed changes, if direction changes, if speed and direction both change
Positive acceleration Increase in velocity
Constant velocity No change in velocity; zero acceleration
How is acceleration affected when mass increases? Acceleration decreases.
Formula for force Mass x acceleration
Force is measured in ... Newtons (N)
Net force Sum of all forces acting on an object
Balanced forces Equal forces that act on an object in opposite directions; do not cause a change in motion; no net force
Unbalanced forces Unequal forces that act on an object; cause a change in motion; create a net force not equal to zero
Newton’s First Law of Motion A body in motion is likely to stay in motion and a body at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it; also called Law of Inertia
friction Unbalanced force that can act upon an object and eventually cause it to stop
inertia A tendency to do nothing or stay the same; an object’s motion will stay constant; does not depend on gravity
Newton’s Second Law of Motion When a net force acts on an object, the object will accelerate in the direction of this net force.
Air resistance Force of air that pushes against an object through the air; a type of fluid friction
Terminal velocity Highest velocity that is reached because the force of the air pushing up on the object is equal to the force of gravity pushing down on the object
Newton’s Third Law of Motion For every force or action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
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