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Forensics test

Forensics-Blood, DNA, Toxicology

blood typing Class-evidence
Blood-spatter recreate crime scene
DNA profiling individual evidence
how much blood is in the human body 5 liters
red blood cells carry gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide)
hemoglobin iron containing protein that binds to O2- gives blood the red color
white blood cells fights disease and foreign invaders
Ethyl alcohol breaks open cells, exposes hemoglobin
phenolphthalein ( Kastle-Myer reagent) reducing agent; turns pink when oxidized
Hydrogen peroxide reacts with hemoglobin- if blood is present, swab will turn pink
Anti-bodies Y shaped proteins secreted by WBC's which aid in immune response
antigens foreign substance or cell that reacts to antibodies
Agglutination clumping of blood cells
Polymorphic proteins Group-specific components and haptoglobins
light source investigators will first examine the crime scene to look for areas that may contain blood. they may use a high-intensity light or UV lights to help them find traces of blood as well as other bodily fluids that are not visible under normal lighting.
Blood reagents tests these tests, referred to as presumptive tests, are used to detect blood at crime scenes based upon the properties of hemoglobin in the blood
Hemastick a strip that has been coated with tetramethylbenzidine and will produce a green or blue-green color with the presence of hemoglobin. helps with finding blood in urine
Luminol/ blue star this chemical is used by crime scene investigators to locate traces of blood, even if it has been cleaned or removed
1. Cohesion blood sticks together as it falls
2. Gravity pulls blood downward
3. Surface tension blood drops that fall on a flat surface have a curved surface
4. Satellites small secondary droplets
1. Passive fall (90 degree angle to floor) circular drops with secondary satellites
2. Arterial Spurts or gushes
3. Splashes Shows position of Victim
4. Smears Bleeding victim touching walls or furniture
5. Blood trails Victim moving from one place to another
6. Blood pools Victim bleeds heavily
Cast off pattern Blood from a moving object coated in blood ( pipe, knife)
Fine-mist spatter High-velocity impact (Gunshot)
Void Empty space; victim/attacker/object moved after attack
1. High Velocity Gunshot wounds
2. Medium Velocity Beating, Stabbing
3. Low Velocity Blunt object impact
Lines of convergence Determines source of blood (Point of origin), Draw straight lines down long axis of blood spatter
Purpose of DNA fingerprinting Determines identity (match tissue samples), Establish Paternity
Individual evidence Identify a single person
Trace evidence Small amount left at crime scene
DNA Stores genetic information, DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, found in nucleus of cells
Exons Encoded DNA-1.5% of DNA
Introns Uncoded DNA-98.5% of DNA
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inherited ONLY from mother
Chromosomes Each person has 46 Chromosomes, 23 pairs- 1 set from mom, 1 set from dad
Genes segment of DNA that contains info to produce a protein
Allele alternate forms of a gene-inherit 1 allele from mom, 1 allele from dad
1. Extraction Take DNA out of cells
2. Amplification Make copies of DNA- Use PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
3. Electrophoresis DNA pieces separated within an agarose gel or capillary tube
PCR Machine Amplifies (makes copies of) DNA
Polymorphisms Differences in DNA sequences (0.1%)
RFLP Analysis older method of DNA testing, requires quarter-sized DNA samples
STR ( Short Tandem Repeat) Very small or degraded DNA samples, Most current technology in use
mtDNA Trace maternal relatives, Evidence: hair, old bones/teeth
Y-STR Trace paternal relatives, Y-chromosome analysis
CODIS COmbined DNA Index System
Gel Electrophoresis Method of separating molecules within an electric field based on the SIZE and CHARGE of DNA fragments
Gel Matrix used to separate DNA- usually agarose
Buffer Salt solution that conducts electricity
Well Slots in the gel where samples are loaded
Small DNA Moves faster
Larger DNA Moves slower
What is Poison? Anything can be a poison, A poison is any substance that, when taken in sufficient quantities, causes a harmful or deadly reaction
Intoxicant Requires that you ingest a rather large amount
Poison Only requires you to ingest a small amount
Toxicology Toxicology deals with drugs, poisons, and other toxic substances and how these substances alter or harm living organisms
Forensic Toxicology/Forensic Toxicologist Finds a toxin and figures out what would happen to a person that ingested/contacted it
Toxicologist Asses the state of inebriation an automobile or industrial accident victim, determines whether someone died from poison or from a natural cause, Assesses whether drugs played a role in a criminals actions
Biotransformation when one chemical changes into another in the body, also called metabolism
Metabolites The new chemicals that happen when the body tries to break down/get rid of a toxin
Metallic elements also cause disease and death
How does forensic toxicology help solve crimes? Helps solves crimes by detecting and identifying drugs and poisons
What are the two general types of illegal psychoactive drugs that exist? Depressants and stimulants
What do psychoactive drugs change or mimic in the human body? they change or mimic Neurotransmitters
What are some of the effects depressants have can have upon an individual? Drowsy, relaxed, sad, pain prevention
What happened to the levels of drug-related arrests in the past 30 years? They have tripled
Where are psychoactive drugs broken down in the body? Liner or target region
Outline where in the body Forensic toxicologists will likely find psychoactive drugs or their breakdown products? Blood, Urine, or CNS
Sequence that psychoactive drugs travel through in the human body Blood, CNS, Liver, Kidneys, Urine
Cocaine Can cause confusion, Insomnia, and impotence
Amphetamines Inflammation of heart lining and skin abscesses
Opiates Disrupts blood flow and increased chance of infection
Marijuana Severely interferes with one's ability to operate a motor vehicle
Created by: carlyrose22
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