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EMTC Chapter 20

EMTC Chapter 20 - Complete Basic Worktext - Patients with Cardiac Problems

QuestionAnswer
(CHD) Coronary heart disease is the single leading cause of death in America today.
Angina chest pain
cardiac arrest the stopping of the heart resulting in a loss of effective circulation
Automated external defibrillator (AED) electrical device that automatically analyzes the heart rhythm, and if appropriate provides a measured dose of electricity through the heart in an attempt to defibrillate or convert the heart into a normal rhythm.
Circulatory System the system made up of the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood. Also called the cardiovascular system (cardio referring to the heart; vascular referring to the blood vessels)
Perfusion the adequate supply of well oxygenated blood to the body tissues, especially the vital organs (Hypoperfusion is inadequate perfusion)
Atria the two upper chambers of the heart. There is a right atrium (which receives unoxygenated blood returning from the body) and a left atrium (which receives oxygenated blood returning from the lungs)
Ventricles the two lower chambers of the heart. There is a right ventricle (which sends oxygen poor blood to the lungs) and a left ventricle (which sends oxygen rich blood to the body)
Automaticity the ability of all heart muscle cells to generate an electrical impulse
Conduction pathway the pathway of electrical impulses through the heart, which causes the heart to beat. The cardiac conduction pathway begins at the sinoatrial node and flows down the center of the heart eventually branching across both ventricles.
Sinoatrial node beginning of the cardiac conduction pathway located at the top of heart near the right atrium
Signs of good perfusion include: Normal Skin Signs, Normal Mental signs, normal vital signs.
Signs of bad perfusion include: abnormal skin signs(pale cool temp), altered mental status(sluggishness, confusion, decreased responsiveness), abnormal vital signs (increased pulse and resp rate, and decreased blood pressure)
Arteries tiny blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart
Veins tiny blood vessel returning blood to the heart
Arterioles the smallest kind of artery
Venules the smallest kind of vein
Capillaries tiny vessels that connect arterioles and venuoles
Aorta the largest aretery in the body it is attached directly to the left ventricle. It is responsible for carrying oxygenated blood directly from the heart to the major areas of the body
Venae caveae they are the largest veins of the body and deliver deoxygenated blood from the body directly into the heart through the right atrium
Coronary arteries theya re the small arteries that carry oxygenated blood to the heart muscle itself. A disruption in flow through these areteries can cause pain and damage to the heart muscle
Pulmonary arteries these are the only aerteries in the body that carry deoxygenated blood. They carry blood from the heart and into the lungs to be oxygenated
Pulmonary veins the only veins in the body that carry oxygenated blood they bring freshly oxygenated blood back from the lungs into the left atrium
Carotid arteries found in the neck along both sides of the trachea, these arteries carry blood to the head
Brachial arteries located on the inside of each arm between the armpit and the elbow, these arteries carry blood to each arm.
Radial arteries located on the thumb side of the anterior wrist, these arteries carry blood to the hands.
Femoral arteries located in the anterior groin area, these arteries supply blood to the lower extremities
Plasma this is the clear yellowish fluid in which the other components of blood are suspended
Red blood cells these are disc shaped cells responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues
White blood cells these are any of the colorless or white cells in the blood that help protect the body from infection and disease
Platelets these are the irregularly shaped cell fragments that are responsible for promoting rapid blood clotting
Myocardial infarction (MI) occlusion or blockage of one or more of the coronary arteries resulting in damage to the heart muscle. Also called a heart attack
Angina literally a pain in the chest occurs when one or more of the coronary arteries are unable to provide an adequate supply of oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.
Congestive Heart failure (CHF) an overload of fluid in the bodys tissues that results when the heart is unable to pump an adequate volume of blood
Dyspnea shortness of breath
Created by: superjacent