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# PARTICLES

### Solids, Liquids and Gases

What is matter Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume)
Mass The amount of matter in an object
Particle theory of a solid In solids, the particles are in a regular pattern, touching each other. They are strongly attracted to each other. They don't move around, just vibrate on the spot.
Particle theory of a liquid In liquids, the particles are not arranged in a regular pattern, they are touching each other. They are strongly attracted to each other. They move around, in and out of the other particles.
Particle theory of a gas In gases, the particles don't touch each other. They're not attracted to each other. The particles move fast in all directions. There's no regular pattern.
Greek philosophers who worked on matter 2500 years ago Zeno, Leucippus and Democritus
When you "squash" gases together, it's called Compression
Why can't you compress liquids or solids Their particles are already touching so can't get closer together
Diffusion Particles spread out. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Diffusion happens in liquids and gases because their particles move randomly from place to place.
Which is slower, liquid diffusion or gas diffusion Liquid - particles in a liquid move more slowly
What changes when a substance changes shape Particles don't change, but distance between particles, their speed and their attraction does.
Gas changing into a liquid - this change of state is called condensing
Liquid turning to ice - this change of state is called freezing
Ice changing to water- this change of state is called melting
Water changing to steam - this change of state is called Boiling
Why do solids and liquids expand as they get hotter The particles vibrate faster so they get slightly further apart
What happens when a substance contracts It gets smaller - when a solid or liquid cools its particles get closer together.
Freezing point 0 degrees C
Boiling point 100 degrees C
Body temperature about 36-37 degrees C
Do particles get bigger when they get hotter No, the particles stay the same size, They just get further apart
How can you speed up dissolving stirring and heating
IN a saturated solution, how much more solute can dissolve none
how do you find the mass of a solution add the masses of solvent and solute
examples of solvents water, ethanol, methanol, acetone, Tetrachloroethylene.
What is a solute and a solvent A solute is the substance that dissolves to make a solution. In salt solution, salt is the solute. A solvent is the substance that does the dissolving – it dissolves the solute. In salt solution, water is the solvent.
Gas pressure is caused by particles colliding with container walls
What increases gas pressure Heating
Most solids are denser than liquids and gases
How does temperature affect gas pressure when air particles get hotter, they move faster. If air inside a container os cold, the particles move slowly, hitting the inside of the container less often. Warm air particles hit the outside more often and the container will collapse.
Liquid water has a greater what than steam density
Independent variable What you will change
Control variables What you will measure
Particle theory explains the states of matter, diffusion and dissolving
distillation a way of separating a solvent from a solution
density the number of particles of matter in a certain volume
Created by: Frankiek
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