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Chapter 10

Respiration and Artificial Ventilation

QuestionAnswer
alveolar ventilation the amount of air that reaches the alveoli
artificial ventilation forcing air or oxygen into the lungs when a patient has stopped breathing or has inadequate breathing. also called positive pressure ventilation
automatic transport ventilator a device that provides positive pressure ventilations. it includes settings designed to adjust ventilation rate and volume, is portable and is easily carried on an ambulance
bag-valve mask a handheld device with a face mask and self-refilling bag that can be squeezed to provide artificial ventilations to a patient. it can deliver air from the atmosphere or oxygen from a supplemental oxygen supply system
cellular respiration the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between cells and circulating blood
cyanosis a blue or gray color resulting from lack of oxygen in the body
diffusion a process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
flowmeter a valve that indicates the flow of oxygen in liters per minute
flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device a device that uses oxygen under pressure to deliver artificial ventilations. its trigger is placed so the rescuer can operate it while still using both hands to maintain a seal on the face mask
humidifier a device connected to the flowmeter to add moisture to the dry oxygen coming from an oxygen cylinder
hypoxia an insufficiency of oxygen in the body's tissue
nasal cannula a device that delivers low concentrations of oxygen through two prongs that rest in the patient's nostrils
nonrebreather mask a face mask and reservoir bad device that delivers high concentrations of oxygen. the patient's exhaled air escapes through a valve and is not rebreathed
oxygen cylinder a cylinder filled with oxygen under pressure
partial rebreather mask a face mask and reservoir oxygen bag with no one-way valve to the reservoir bag so some exhaled air mixes with the oxygen; used in some patients to help preserve carbon dioxide levels in the blood to stimulate breathing
pocket face mask a device usually with a one-way valve, to aid in artificial ventilation. a rescuer breathes through the valve when the mask is placed over the patient's face. it acts as a barrier to prevent contact with a patient's breath or body fluids
pressure regulator a device connected to an oxygen cylinder to reduce cylinder pressure so it is safe for delivery of oxygen to a patient
pulmonary respiration the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and circulating blood in the pulmonary capillaries
respiration the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood and between the blood and the cells. also used to mean, simply, breathing
respiratory arrest when breathing completely stops
respiratory distress increased work of breathing; a sensation of shortness of breath
respiratory failure the reduction of breathing to the point where oxygen intake is not sufficient to support life
stoma a permanent surgical opening in the neck through which the patient breathes
tracheostomy mask a device designed to be placed over a stoma or tracheostomy tube to provide supplemental oxygen
ventilation breathing in and out, or artificial provision of breaths
Venturi mask a face mask and reservoir bag device that delivers specific concentrations of oxygen by mixing oxygen with inhaled air
What is an normal tidal volume? 5-7 mL per kg of body weight
hypercapnia high levels of carbon dioxide
What do chemoreceptors do? detect levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the cardiovascular system
What is the appropriate intervention for adequate breathing? oxygen by a nonrebreather mask or nasal cannula
What is the appropriate intervention for inadequate breathing/respiratory failure? assisted ventilations with a bag-valve mask
What is the appropriate intervention for respiratory arrest? artificial ventilations with bag-valve mask
What are the normal respiratory rates for an adult? 12-20 breathes per minute
What are the normal respiratory rates for a child? 15-30 breathes per minute
What are the normal respiratory rates for an infant? 25-50 breathes per minute
What are the signs of hypoxia? cyanosis and altered mental status
What are the negative side effects of positive pressure ventilation? decreasing cardiac output, gastric distention, and hyperventilation
Which BVM mask is used for stoma ventilation? a pediatric sized mask
How many liters of oxygen does a D cylinder contain? 350 liters
How many liters of oxygen does a E cylinder contain? 625 liters
How many liters of oxygen does a M cylinder contain? 3,000 liters
How many liters of oxygen does a G cylinder contain? 5,300 liters
How many liters of oxygen does a H cylinder contain? 6,900 liters
What is the cylinder constant for a D cylinder? 0.16
What is the cylinder constant for a E cylinder? 0.28
What is the cylinder constant for a M cylinder? 1.56
What is the cylinder constant for a G cylinder? 2.41
What is the cylinder constant for a H cylinder? 3.14
What is the cylinder constant for a K cylinder? 3.14
What is the formula for duration of flow in minutes? gauge pressure minus the safe residual pressure (always 200) times the constant divided by the flow rate in liters per minute
What is a safe working pressure for a patient? 30 - 70 psi
What are the flow rates for oxygen delivery devices? nonrebreather mask - 12-15 lpm at 80-90 percent oxygen; nasal cannula - 1-6 lpm at 24-44 percent oxygen; partial rebreather mask - 9-10 lpm at 40-60 percent oxygen; tracheostomy mask - 8-10 lpm at varying oxygen levels
Created by: caitlyncrum
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