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ENT

UWORLD Round 2 2021 Part 1

QuestionAnswer
What is the most common cause of Epistaxis? Irritation of highly vascularized mucosa at the anterior nasal septum
Where is the Kiesselbach plexus located? Anterior nasal septum
What important anatomical feature is found in the anterior nasal septum? Kiesselbach plexus
What arteries anastomose and compose the Kiesselbach plexus? 1. Anterior Ethmoidal artery 2. Sphenopalatine artery 3. Superior labial artery
Which limb of the Ethmoidal artery is part of the Kiesselbach plexus? Anterior ethmoidal artery
Which area of the nose would cause heavy epistaxis to cease or stop in a patient? Anterior nasal septum
Why does compressing the anterior nasal septum, often helps to stop or reduce the hemorrhage in the nose? It contains the Kiesselbach plexus
Which part of the Laryngeal nerve courses in proximity to the Inferior Thyroid artery? Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
In Thyroidectomy due to Thyroid cancer, damage to what nerve may cause hoarseness of the voice? Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
What is the clinical consequence of accidentally damaging the Recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid removal surgery? Hoarseness of the voice
What needs to be damaged in order to produce hoarseness of voice as the Recurrent Laryngeal nerve is damaged? Vocal cord paralysis
How would vocal cord paralysis be clinically presented? Hoarseness of the voice
What causes hearing loss upon prolonged exposure to loud noises? Damage to the Stereociliated Hair cells of the Organ of Corti
Loud noises cause bone or air conduction hearing loss? Both
What hearing loss type is caused Acoustic Neuroma? High-frequency sensorineural hearing loss
What type of sound is usually detected by the distal cochlea? Low-frequency sound
What is the result of defects in the middle ear ossicles? Hearing loss that generally affects air condition across all frequencies
What can cause unilateral conductive hearing loss? Rupture of the Tympanic membrane
What are cholesteatomas? Collections of Squamous cell debris that from a mass behind the tympanic membrane ("pearly" mass)
What is a possible mass complication of surgery to the middle ear? Cholesteatoma
How do Cholesteatomas cause hearing loss? Due to erosion of the Auditory ossicles
What nerve mediates the Cough reflex? Internal Laryngeal nerve
What reflex is mediated by the Internal Laryngeal nerve? Cough reflex
Which anatomical reference or location is often associated with foreign bodies lodging and causing an impaired cough reflex? Piriform recess
A foreign body lodged in the Piriform recess very likely will cause: Damage to the Internal Laryngeal nerve, presenting with an impaired cough reflex
Failure of fusion between the Maxillary prominence and the intermaxillary segment. Dx? Cleft lip
Which structure fail to fuse in Cleft lip? Maxillary prominence and intermaxillary segment
Which gestation weeks are most common to produce a cleft lip or palate ? 5th and 6th of embryonic development
What gives rise to Cleft palate? Failure of Palatine shelves to fuse with one another or with the primal palate
Common non lactose-fermenter, oxidase (+), motile, gram negative rod Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What is the most common cause of Malignant Otitis Externa (MOE)? Pseudomonas aeringonsa infection
What population is at highest risk for MOE due to P. aeruginosa infection? Elderly and diabetic patients
How is MOE commonly presented? Exquisite ear pain, drainage, and granulation tissue often seen within the ear canal
What nerve is known to provide cutaneous sensation to the posterior External Auditory canal? Vagus nerve
What subdivision of the trigeminal nerve provides cutaneous sensation to the External Auditory canal , except for the posterior section? CN V3 (Auriculotemporal nerve)
What is the Auriculotemporal nerve? Branch of the CN V3, that provides sensation to the External Auditory canal except for the posterior section
Which condition may affect the cutaneous sensation of the External Auditory canal by affecting the nerves involved? Otitis Externa
Which nerves may be affected in Otitis Externa? Vagus nerve and Auriculotemporal branch of CNV3
What are some key clues indicating possible Head & Neck Squamous cell carcinoma? Cervical adenopathy and a base of the tongue mass, especially with a Hx of tobacco smoking
What is a MAJOR risk factor for development of HNSCC? Tobacco smoking
What are the classic histological findings of HNSCC? Intercellular bridges and Keratin pearls
What malignancies are known to arise from the mucosa of the Upper Aerodigestive tract? Head and Neck Squamous cell carcinoma
Why is smoking a major cause or risk factor of HNSCC? Tobacco contains mutagens that cause multiple somatic mutations leading to HNSCC
What is connected by the Eustachian tube? Middle of the ear to the Nasopharynx
What structure connects the Middle ear with the Nasopharynx? Eustachian tube
What is a common complication of malignancy in the Nasopharynx? As the cancer grows it may block the Eustachian tube, leading to Middle Ear effusion
What is the first lymph node to which HNSCC would spread first to? Anterior cervical lymph nodes
What are common symptoms seen in Allergic rhinitis? Nasal congestion, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and conjunctivitis
What causes the symptoms of Allergic rhinitis? IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction
What are some causes or causative-factors leading to Allergic rhinitis? Seasonal, geographic, animal, and indoor vs outdoor activities
Created by: rakomi
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