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mr. charles12

DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

QuestionAnswer
DNA stores and transmits genetic information
RNA involved in expressing DNA stored info
transcription rewriting DNA gene info into mRNA
translation Converting mRNA info into protein
nucleotide monomer of nucleic acids
4 nitrogen bases in DNA adenine(A)guanine(G)cytosine(C)Thymine(T)
4 nitrogen bases in RNA adenine(A)guanine(G)cytosine(C)Uracil(U)
DNA Polymerase enzyme that builds DNA strands
ribosome organelle where proteins are assembled(WORK BENCH)
three kinds of RNA mRNA,rRNA,tRNA
deoxyribose sugar in DNA
ribose sugar in RNA
three parts of nucleotide sugar,phosphate,nitrogen base
mutation change in the DNA code
Replication making an exact copy of DNA
codon group of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
amino acid monomer of proteins
Nucleotide The basic building block(monomer)from which DNA is made.Each nucleotide is made up of three basic components-sugar,phosphate and a nitrogenous base
The Four Nitrogenous Bases of DNA Adenine,thymine,cytosine and guanine
Double Helix DNA structure discovered by Watson and Crick. Two strands of DNA wound around each other
Base Pairing The nitrogen bases in the DNA molecule are paired.(A=T and C=G)
DNA Replication The DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing.Each strand is a template for the new strand.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid.The material contained in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that contains our genetic code.
messenger RNA mRNA is made from one strand of DNA. It carries the code from DNA for the manufacture of proteins(to the ribosomes)
RNA Ribonucleic acid.There are three types of RNA,Messenger RNA,Transfer RNA and Ribosomal RNA
Distinguish between DNA and RNA RNA has only one strand,DNA has two.RNA has ribose and DNA has deoxyribose.RNA contains uracil and DNA contains thymine
Transcription The process by which the DNA molecule separates and a strand is used to transcribe the code(for making a protein)onto mRNA
RNA polymerase The enzyme that uses one strand of DNA as a template to assemble nucleotides into a strand of RNA.
DNA polymerase The enzyme envolved in the production of a second strand of DNA during DNA replication.
The Genetic Code The language of mRNA instructions for the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.
Proteins Macromolecules made up of amino acid subunit(monomers).Contain C,H,O and Nitrogen.Structural unit of our bodies and also many enzymes.
Codon Three consecutive nitrogen bases on a mRNA chain.One codon determines one amino acid on the genetic code chart.
Anticodon The three bases on tRNA that are complementary to the three bases on one mRNA codon
Translation Occurs on the cells ribosomes where the information from mRNA is used to assemble amino acids to make proteins
Peptide Bond Chemical bond that binds one amino acid to another to form a protein
Mutations Changes in genetic material. Specific changes in the order and sequence of the nitrogen bases on a DNA strand. Mutations result in changes to protein structure. This can result in producing defective proteins that disrupt normal biological activity
Make a the corresponding DNA from this DNA strand.(ATACTGGATCCA) TATGACCTAGGT
Make the corresponding mRNA chain for the following DNA Strand(ATACTGGATCCA) UAUGACCUAGGU
What is the antiocodon for the following mRNA codon UAC AUG
What is the amino acid sequence produced by the following mRNA sequence(AUGUACUGA) methionine, tyrosine, stop
Transfer RNA A type of RNA that transfers(transports) each amino acid to the ribosome during the process of protein synthesis.
Created by: eccharles77
 

 



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