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Session 2 Microbio16

Microbio -16- GI #2 Infection Hartley

Gram + bacillus, SPORE FORMING, strict anaerobe produces seven different strains of exotoxin depending on strain of bacteria Clostridium botulinum
how many different types of toxin are produced by each strain of Clostridium botulinum one toxin per strain Toxins are A,B, C1, D, E, F and G
What are the possible sources of infection with Clostridium botulinum ingesting contaminated foods w either bacteria or simply ingesting toxins produced by the bacteria
What is the progression of infection if you just eat toxins of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Resists destruction in stomach is absorbed by intestines into bloodstream toxin affects motor neurons inducing paralysis and death
What is the progression of infection if you eat auctual bacteria Clostridium botulinum Bacteria grow in intestines produce exotoxins bacteria eventually get cleared by normal flora of intestines and immune system
what are the s/sx of ingestion of toxins (botulism poisoning) Progressive paralysis leading to death
What aret hte s/sx of intestinal botulism (ingestion of bac) variable degrees of paralysis from lethargy to respiratory failure -most often in immunocompromised adults and infants -may also infect dirty wounds
What are exotoxins compoused of A and B subunits B subunit- Bind receptors at nerve terminals A subunit- blocks neurotransmitter release
What can be given after botulism infection/poisoning that will stop progression of s/sx anti-toxin can be given but must be delivered rapidly
What will clear Clostridium botulinum bacteria from intestines immune system will eventually clear bacteria
What is the tx for intestinal botulism Anti toxin suppoortive tx until bacteria is cleared -feeding tube -respirator -etc depending on level of paralysis from exotoxin produced
What is the tx for botulsim poisoning (ingestion of just the toxin) give anti-toxin
-Gram positive bacillus -Spore forming, anaerobe -Produces a double zone of hemolysis on blood agar Clostridium perfringens
What are the sources of infection w/ Clostridium perfringens food poisoning- one of the most common causes of food poisoning
What is the progression of infection w/ Clostridium perfringens ingestion of spores or bacteria growth in intestines and production of toxins symptoms appear bacteria are cleared
what are the s/sx of food poisoning w/ Clostridium perfringens water diarrhea with abdominal cramps occuring 7-15 hours after eating -less frequently associated w/ nausea, vomiting, fever
If you get a severe infection w/ Clostridium perfringens what will the s/sx change from the typically water diarrhea acute onset of severe abdominal pain and diarrhea usually blood between 5-6 hours after ingestion, often accompanied by vomiting
Do you need a vaccination for food poisoning no it is self-limiting and usually clears within 48 hrs
What is the tx for food poisoning symptomatic tx and hydration as needed
Gram positive bacillus Spore forming, facultative anaerobe b-hemolytic Bacillus cereus
What is the emetic syndrome of Bacillus cereus infections ingest toxin that resist digestion sympotms start
What is the progression of infection of diarrheal syndrome of Bacillus cereus Ingest bacteria or spores bacteria grows in intestines and produces exotoxins symptoms begin then bacteria is cleared
What are the s/sx of emetic syndrome of Bacillus cereus nausea, vomiting within 1-6 hours of eating, one third present w/ diarrhea -caused by eating preformed toxins
What are the s/sx of diarrheal syndrome of Bacillus cereus abdominal cramps and diarrhea 8-16 hours after eating caused by production of toxins after bacterial growth
is there a vaccine available for Bacillus cereus no, most cases are self limiting and short duration
What is the tx for Bacillus cereus symptomatic only
Gram positive cocci Coagulase positive (important diagnostic) b-hemolytic Staphylococcus aureus
What are the sources of infection of food poisoning from Staphylococcus aureus Ingesting preformed toxins S. Aureues can cause many other types of diseases apart from food poisoning
what is the progression of infection of food poisoning from Staphylococcus aureus 1 ingest enterotoxins 2 entertoxins casue -super antigen like effect (polycolonal stimulation of t cells to secrete cytokines -stimule upper GI neurons to induce vomiting reflex 3 symptoms rearely last more than 24 hours
what are the s/sx of food poisoning from Staphylococcus aureus abrupt onset of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps -infrequently associated with diarrhea
is there a vaccine for staph aureues no, infection is self-limiting and short duration
what is the tx for food poisoning from Staphylococcus aureus symptomatic tx is the 2nd or 3rd leading cause of food poisoning
Gram negative bacillus Facultative anaerobe Most produce H2S, and do NOT ferment lactose Genetically diverse species (many serotypes and adaptations Salmonella
what are the main sources of infection w/ salmonella ingesting infected foods that were improperly maintained - mostly POULTRY, milk, EGGS, and egg products
what is the progression of infection from Salmonella 1- ingest cont food 2- bacteria pass through intestinal mucous and epithelium to LAMINA PROPRIA 3- induce inflammatory response and symptoms begin 4- clearance of bacteria
What are the s/sx of salmonellosis -abdominal cramps, fever, chills, vomiting, and diarrhea -symptoms start 1-2 days after meal and last 3-4 days
What complication can arise from salmonellosis mostly in elderly, immune compromised and neonates Bacteria in invasive and can cause bacteremia
What type of immune response do you get to Salmonella Both cellular and humoral immune responses to infection
what is the tx for salmonella hydration antibiotic only for prophylaxis from bacteremia in at risk groups
What GI infections have short incubation time of 1-6 hours because they have preformed toxins S. Aureus C. Botulinum (Botulism poisoning) B. Cereus (Emetic Syndrome)
What GI infections have long incubation time to GI symptoms 8-16 hours because bacterial growth precedes toxin release -C. Perfringens B. Cereus (diarrheal syndrome) E. Coli V. Cholera C. Botulinum (intestinal botulism)
Giardia lamblia (intestinalis) Cryptosporidium (parvum) Cyclospora cayetanensis Entamoeba histolytica Protozoan Pathogens
What is the common diagnostic method for Protozoan Pathogens microscopy of fecal samples looking for cysts
Flagellated protozoan Trophozoite carries two (2) nuclei Cyst is after fission and has 4 nuclei Giardia lamblia (intestinalis)
what is the source of infection w/ Giardia lamblia (intestinalis) drinking contaminated water fecal to oral route (daycare centers) less common eating contaminated foods
What is the progression of infection w/ Giardia lamblia (intestinalis) ingest cytst excyzoites release differentiates into trophozoites that being to replicate by binary fission
How many cysts are needed to initiate infection of Giardia lamblia (intestinalis) as few as 10-100 cysts
How common is giardiasis one of the most common parasitic diseases world-wide
what are the s/sx of giardiasis asymptomatic to severe diarrhea malabsorption and weight loss
How can giardiasis be prevented boiling or filtering water
what is the tx for giardiasis quanicrine or metronidazole
Sporozoan Have alternative asexual and sexual life cycles depending on environment Like most sporozoans it is an obligate intracellular parasite Cryptosporidium (parvum)
What is the most common source of infection w/ Cryptosporidium (parvum) drinking contaminated water also eating contaminated food
what are the s/sx of Cryptosporidium (parvum) fever loss of appetite nausea vomiting headache
How long do s/sx of Cryptosporidium (parvum) generally last 10-14 days cyst can be shed for 2 weeks after symptoms clear
What groups are most likely to be infected by Cryptosporidium (parvum) young children immune compromised
What is the tx for Cryptosporidium (parvum) no effective tx just prevention
how can you detect Cryptosporidium (parvum) modified acid=fast stain with concentration method allows bright red ooctyes to be detected
Sporozoan Have alternative asexual and sexual life cycles depending on environment Excreted oocysts are non-infectious and must mature in the environment Therefore person-to-person spread is NOT possible Cyclospora cayetanensis
what is the source of infection of Cyclospora cayetanensis eating contaminated foods
what are the s/sx of cyclosporiasis Fatigue loss of apetite myalgias vomiting water diarrhea flatus weight loss
typicall how long do s/sx of cyclosporiasis last s/sx last 1-2 weeks but my occur as cyclical relapsing up to 7 weeks later
Are exreted oocytes infectious no they are immature and non-infectious
what is the tx for Cyclospora cayetanensis trimethoprim-sulfameithoxazole prevenition is key sanitation in food and water
how can you dx Cyclospora cayetanensis shows fluorescence under UV light
Ameoba Still has trophozoite and cyst stages/forms Feed on bacteria and tissue cells Including erythrocytes Two species Entamoeba histolytica E. histolytica – More pathogenic E. dispar – Will not secrete toxins or spread outside the GI tract
what is the progression of infection with Entamoeba histolytica 1- ingest cyst from contaminated food or water 2- excysting in intestine to become trophozite 3- encysts 4- can leave intestine and get to liver and for hepatic abscesses
what are the s/sx of intestinal disease of Entamoeba histolytica can by asymptomatic abdominal pain ( can be severe) frequent bowel movements, tenesmus Can develop Amebic Dysentary: -bloody bowel movements up to 20/day
What can develop if Entamoeba histolytica has extraintestinal sites of invasion you can get amoebic liver abscess or abscess in brain, lung, GI tract
What are the s/sx of amoebic liver abscess from extraintestinal invasion of Entamoeba histolytica fever RUQ pain w/ tender hepatomegaly LFTS are normal Jaundice is unusual abscess will be visualized in CT/MRI upper right lobe is common site
What is the tx for intestinal infection of Entamoeba histolytica diloxanide furoate
What is the tx of extraintestinal infection w/ Entamoeba histolytica metronidazole and tinidazole
What sets protozoan infections arpart from the other GI infections typically protozoan infection last longer than bacterial infections
Created by: smaxsmith