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Unit 1

AP Biology Unit 1 Vocab

TermDefinition
Adhesion Two different types of molecules form hydrogen bonds
Cohesion two of the same molecules form hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bond a type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule or in another region of the same molec
Polar something that is polar has an uneven distribution of charges in different regions of the said molecule
Surface Tension a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break a surface of a liquid
Atom the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
Essential Element a chemical element required for an organism to survive, grow and reproduce
Macromolecule A giant molecule formed by joining of smaller molecules, usually by dehydration reaction
Cleavage a division or separation of form
Dehydration Synthesis a chemical reaction in two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water my
Hydrolysis a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water functions and disassembly of polymers to monomers
Monomer the sub-unit that serves as building block of a polymer
Amino Acid an organic molecule processing both carboxyl and amino group acids serve as monomers of polypeptides
Amino Terminus/N-Terminus the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group located at the end of a polypeptide
Carbohydrates hey sugar or one of its dimers or polymers
Carboxyl Terminus/C-Terminus this is the end of a free carboxyl group
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) a double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and nitrogenous bases
Deoxyribose the sugar component of DNA nucleotides having one fewer hydroxyl group Then Ribose the sugar component of RNA nucleotides
Hydrophilic Having an affinity for water
Hydrophobic having an affinity for water tending to coalesce and form droplets of water
Lipid any group of large biological molecules including fats phospholipids and steroids that makes poorly if at all with water
Nitrogenous Base a molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base
Nucleic Acid a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomersserves as a blueprint for proteins and through the actions of proteins for all cellular activities
Nucleotide the building block of a nucleic acid consisting of afive-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate group
Phosphate a chemical compound that contains phosphorus and is often used in fertilizers
Phospholipids a lipid made up of glare Acero joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acid is acting as nonpolar hydrophilic Tails while the rest of the molecules act as Polar hydrophilic head
Polymer a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds
Protein a biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure
R group and abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the mall
Ribonucleic Acid a type of nucleic acid consisting of Polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with sugar and the nitrogenous bases
Ribose the circuit component of RNA nucleotide
Saturated Fats a fatty acidin which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by a single bonds best maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton
Unsaturated Fats a fat or fatty acid in which there is one or more double Bonds in the fatty acid chain
3’ the end with the terminal hydroxyl group on the 3’ carbon of deoxyribose
5’ the end of which the terminal phosphate group on the 5’ carbon of the deoxyribose
Alpha Helice a cold region constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding atoms at the Paliopeptide backbone
Antiparallel – in regards to DNA referring to the arrangement of sugar-phosphate backbones in DNA double helix
Beta-Sheet one form of the secondary structure of proteins in the white stuff polypeptide chain folds back and forth to regions of the chain light parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone
Covalent Bond a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Double Helix the form of native adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound aroundthe imaginary access into a spiral shape
Peptide a short chain of amino acids
Polypeptide a polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Primary Structure the level ofthe protein structure of referring to specifically in your sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure regions of repetitive calling and folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone
Subunit a subdivision or distinct component of a larger unit
Synthesis the creation of something it is the process of combining two or more components to produce an entity
Tertiary Structure the overall shape of a protein molecule due to interactions of amino acid side chains including hydrophobic interactions ionic bonds hydrogen bonds and disunified bridges
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone the sugar-phosphate backbone forms the structural framework of a nucleic acids including DNA and RNA
Created by: ivan34colin
 

 



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