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Unit 1

AP Biology Unit 1 Vocabulary- Salviejo-Camacho

TermDefinition
Adhesion Two different types of molecules form hydrogen bonds.
Cohesion Two of the same molecules form hydrogen bonds.
Hydrogen Bond A type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule or in another region of the same molecule
Polar Something (molecule) that is polar has an uneven distribution of charges in different regions of the said molecule.
Surface Tension A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
Atom The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
Essential Element A chemical element required for an organism to survive, glow, and reproduce.
Macromolecule A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction.
Cleavage A division or separation of form.
Dehydration Synthesis A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
Hydrolysis A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers.
Monomer The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
Amino Acid An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and an amino group. Acids serve as the monomers polypeptides.
Amino Terminus/N-Terminus The start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group located at the end of a polypeptide.
Carbohydrates A sugar or one of its dimers or polymers.
Carboxyl terminus/ C-Terminus This is the end with a free carboxyl group.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule, consisting of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases.
Deoxyribose The sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
Hydrophilic Having an affinity for water.
Hydrophobic Having no affinity for water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in waterl
Lipid Any group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water.
Nitrogenous Base A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base.
Nucleic Acid A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteinsand, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities.
Nucleotide The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate group.
Phosphate A chemical compound that contains phosphorus and is often used in fertilizers.
Phospholipids A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head.
Polymer A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds.
Protein A biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure.
R group An abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule.
Ribonucleic Acid A type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases.
Ribose The sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
Saturated Fats A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton.
Unsaturated Fats A fat or fatty acid in which there is one or more double bond in the fatty acid chain.
3' Three prime; the end with the terminal hydroxyl group on the 3' carbon of the deoxyribose.
5' Five prime; the end with the terminal phosphate group on the 5' carbon of the deoxyribose.
Alpha Helix A coiled region constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding atoms of the polypeptide backbone (not the side chains).
Antiparallel- in regards to DNA Referring to the arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.
Beta- Sheet One form the of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone.
Covalent Bond A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons.
Double Helix The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape.
Peptide A short chain of amino acids.
Polypeptide A polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Primary Structure The level of protein structure of referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids.
Secondary Structure Regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituent if the backbone.
Subunit (general) A subdivision or a distinct component of a larger unit.
Synthesis The creation of something; It is the process of combining two or more components to produce an entity.
Tertiary Structure The overall shape of a protein molecule due to interactions of amino acid side chains, including hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
Sugar- Phosphate Backbone The sugar-phosphate backbone forms the structural framework of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA.
Created by: kaliamae
 

 



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