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Unit 1

AP Biology Unit 1 Vocabulary

Adhesion The clinging of one substance to another such as water to plant cell walls by means of hydrogen bonds
Cohesion The linking together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bond A weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
Polar Distribution of electrons between the covalently bonded atoms is not even
Surface Tension The property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force, due to the cohesive nature of the water molecules
Atom The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
Essential Element A chemical element required for an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce
Macromolecule A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction reaction
Cleavage (1) The process of cytokinesis in animal cells are characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane (2)The succession of Rapid cell divisions without significant growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote to a ball of cells
Dehydration Synthesis A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently to each other with the removal of a water molecule
Hydrolysis A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers
Monomer The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
Amino Acid An organic molecule processing both a carboxyl and an amino group; serve as the monomers of polypeptides
Amino Terminus /N-Termminus A term that identifies one end of a protein molecule; at the end of the molecule which terminates in a free amino group
Carbohydrates A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers polysaccharides
Carboxyl Terminus /C-Terminus The end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A molecule composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms
Deoxyribose A sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen.
Hydrophilic Having an affinity for water
Hydrophobic Having no affinity for water tending to coalesce and form droplets in water
Lipid A type of organic molecule found in living things. It is oily or waxy
Nitrogenous Base A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base
Nucleic Acid Naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid, sugars, and a mixture of organic bases
Nucleotide The basic building block of nucleic acids. RNA and DNA are polymers made of long chains of _______
Phosphate A chemical compound made up of one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms
Phospholipids Major components of the plasma membrane; the outermost layer of animal cells
Polymer Any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers
Protein Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues
R Group An abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule
Ribonucleic Acid A polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes
Ribose The sugar component of RNA nucleotides
Saturated Fats A type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds
Unsaturated Fats A fat or fatty acid in which there is one or more double bond in the fatty acid chain
3' (3) the number of carbon atom in a deoxyribose sugar molecule to which a phosphate group bonds
5' (5)the number of carbon atom in a deoxyribose sugar molecule to which a phosphate group bonds
Alpha Helix A coiled region constituting one from of the secondary structure of proteins arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between atoms of the polypeptide backbone (not the side chain)
Antiparallel - in regards to DNA Referring to the arrangement of the sugar phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix (they run in opposite 5' -> 3' directions)
Beta-Sheet It is important for protein structure, such as fatty-acid binding proteins, which are required for lipid metabolism. These proteins are almost made completely from ___________
Covalent Bond A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Double Helix Describes the appearance of double-stranded DNA, which is composed of two linear strands that run opposite to each other, or anti-parallel, and twist together
Peptide A short chain of amino acids connected to one another in a sequence by bonds called peptide bonds
Polypeptide A chain of many amino acids; and a protein contains one or more polypeptides
Primary Structure The level of protein structure referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure Regions of repetitive soiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the back bone (not the side chain)
Subunit A single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex
Synthesis The creation of something. It is the process of combining two or more components to produce an entity
Tertiary Structure The overall three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide; primarily due to interactions between the R groups of the amino acids that make up the protein
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone forms the structural framework of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA. This backbone is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups, and defines directionality of the molecule
Created by: ChrisZam
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