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Unit 1

AP Biology Unit 1 Vocabulary- Hunter

TermDefinition
Cohesion The linking together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
Adhesion The clinging of one substance to another, such as water to plant cell walls by means of hydrogen bonds.
Hydrogen Bond A type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to another slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond.
Polar A chemical species in which the distribution of electrons between the covalently bonded atoms is not even.
Surface Tension A measure of how difficult it it to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
Atom The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
Essential Element A chemical element required for an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Macro-molecule A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
Cleavage The process of cytokineses in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane.
Dehydration Synthesis Refers to the formation of larger molecules from smaller reactants, accompanied by the loss of a water molecule.
Hydrolysis A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers.
Monomer The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
Amino Acid An organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group. Amino acids serve a the monomers of polypeptides.
Amino Terminus/ N-Terminus The start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group located at the end of a polypeptide.
Carbohydrates A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (saccharide) or polymers (polysaccharides)
Carboxyl Terminus/C-Terminus The end of an amino acid chain, terminated by a free carboxyl group. When the protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus to C-terminus.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A nucleic acid molecule, usually a double-stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
Deoxyribose The sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA nucleotides.
Hydrophilic Having an affinity for water
Hydrophobic Having no affinity for water; tending to coalesce and form droplets of water
Lipid Any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water
Nitrogenous Base A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base. The nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C).
Nucleic Acid A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as the blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA
Nucleotide The basic building block of nucleic acids. RNA and DNA are polymers made of long chains of nucleotides. A nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule (either ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA) attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base
Phosphate A chemical compound made up of one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms. When it is attached to a molecule containing carbon, it is called a phosphate group.
Phospholipids A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. Phosphylids form bilayers that function as biological membranes.
Polymer A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together by covalent bonds.
Protein A biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure.
R group An abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule.
Ribonucleic Acid Type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil; usually single stranded
Ribose The sugar component of RNA nucleotides
Saturated Fats A type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds. A fat is made of two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids.
Unsaturated Fats a fat or fatty acid in which there is one or more double bond in the fatty acid chain. A fat molecule is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond.
3’ A term that identifies one end of a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. The 3' end is that end of the molecule which terminates in a 3' phosphate group.
5' A term that identifies one end of a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. The 5' end is that end of the molecule which terminates in a 5' phosphate group.
Alpha Helice A coiled region constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between atoms of of the polypeptide backbone.
Antiparallel – in regards to DNA Referring to the arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA doubles helix
Beta-Sheet One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chains folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone.
Covalent Bond A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons.
Double Helix The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape.
Peptide A short chain of amino acids that are connected to one another in a sequence by bonds called peptide bonds.
Polypeptide A polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Primary Structure The level of protein structure referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids.
Secondary Structure Regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone.
Subunit A single protein molecule that assembles with other protein molecules to form a protein complex. Some naturally occurring proteins have a relatively small number of subunits and therefore described as oligomeric, for example hemoglobin or DNA polymerase.
Synthesis The production of an organic compound in a living thing, especially as aided by enzymes.
Tertiary Structure The overall shape of a protein molecule due to interactions of amino acid side chains, including hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone Forms the structural framework of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA. This backbone is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups, and defines directionality of the molecule.
Created by: ahunter1229
 

 



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