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Unit 1

AP Biology Unit 1 Vocabulary -Gonzalez G.

Adhesion the clinging of one substance to another
Cohesion Collectively, the hydrogen bonds hold the substance together
Hydrogen Bond type of of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule or in another region of the same molecule
Polar A molecule with an uneven distribution of charges in different regions of the molecule
Atom the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
Essential Element A chemical element required for an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce
Macromolecule A giant molecule formed by joining of smaller molecules usually by a dehydrating reaction
Cleavage The succession of a rapid cell division without significant growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote to a ball of cells
Dehydration Synthesis A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule
Hydrolysis a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water: functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers.
Monomer The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
Amino Acid an organic molecule possessing both a carboxyl and an amino group, serves as the monomer of polypeptides
Amino Terminus/N-Terminus In the molecule of a peptide, the amino acid residue on one end as an amine group on the alpha carbon
Carbohydrates a sugar or one of its dimers or polymers
Carboxyl Terminus/C-Terminus The amino acid reside on the other end has a carboxylic acid group on the alpha carbon
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) a nucleic acid molecule in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomer with a deoxyribose sugar and the A, C, G, T
Deoxyribose the sugar component of DNA nucleotides, having one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose
Hydrophobic substances that are nonionic and nonpolar actually seem to repel water
Hydrophilic any substance that has an affinity for water
Lipid Any of a group of large biological molecules, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids', that mix poorly with water
Nitrogenous Base A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base.
Nucleic Acid A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular actives (DNA and RNA)
Nucleotide the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate group.
Phosphate A chemical group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
Phospholipids A lipid made up of glycerol joined two fatty acids and phosphate groups.
Polymer A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomer linked together by covalent bonds
Protein A biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptide folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure
R group An abbreviation for any group in which carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule
Ribonucleic Acid A type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomer with rise sugar and the nitrogen bases.
Ribose The sugar component of RNA nucleotides
Saturated Fats A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton
Unsaturated Fats A fatty acid that has one ore more double bonds between carbon sin the hydrogen tail
3' refers to the number of carbon atoms in deoxyribose sugar molecule; has a free hydroxyl group on the 3' carbon of its terminal sugar
5' refers to the number of carbon atoms in deoxyribose sugar molecules; has a free hydroxyl group on the 5' carbon of its terminal sugar
Alpha Helice A coiled region constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding between atoms of polypeptide backbone
Antiparallel- in regards to DNA the arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix
Beta-Sheet two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone
Covalent Bonds A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Double Helix the form of native DNA, two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around an imaginary axis into a spiral shape.
Peptide The covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by a dehydration reaction
Polypeptide A polymer of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Primary Structure the level of protein structure referring to the specific linear sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure Regions of repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bonding between constituents of the backbone
Subunit A single protein molecule that assembles with other protein molecules to form a protein complex
Synthesis The forming or building of a more complex substance or compound form elements or simpler compounds
Tertiary Structure The overall shape of a protein molecule due to interaction of amino acid side chains
Sugar- Phosphate Backbone Is the portion of the DNA double helix that provides structural support to the molecules
Created by: genavi27
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