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Shield Volcano Profile resembles a warrior’s shield lying on the ground Formed by thick lava flows that flow slowly, not explosive Largest volcanoes are shield Examples: Mauna Loa on the Big Island of Hawaii Galapagos Islands
Composite Volcano Large symmetrical cones Built by alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs. Can create explosive eruptions Examples: Mount Fuji in Japan Mt. Hood, Mt. St. Helens, and Mt. Rainier in the U.S.
Cinder cone Volcano Small cones-shaped volcanoes with steep angled sides Blobs of lava spew into the air during eruptions and fall as cinders on the sides of the volcano Built over a short period of time Examples: Paricutin in Mexico Sunset Crater in Arizona
Lava Dome Volcano Lava is too thick to flow a great distance. Lava cools and piles up around the vent. As the dome continues to grow it spills loose fragments down the sides. Sometimes occur within craters of other volcanoes
Secondary Vent magma can reach the surface in other areas
Magma molten rock under the earth’s surface
Lava molten rock above the earth’s surface
Ring of Fire An active volcanic region
Island Arc a curved chain of volcanic islands located at a tectonic plate margin, typically with a deep ocean trench on the convex side.
Hot Spot Regions of the mantle that are very hot compared to the surrounding mantle. This creates a mantle plume that eventually breaks through the crust as a volcano. Usually happens in the middle of a plate rather than the boundary
Magma Chamber large underground pool of molten rock sitting underneath the Earth’s crust.
Volcanic Pipe Volcanic pipes or volcanic conduits are subterranean geological structures formed by the violent, supersonic eruption of deep-origin volcanoes. They are considered to be a type of diatreme.
Main Vent the weak point in the Earth’s crust where hot magma rises from the magma chamber and reaches the surface.
Crater circular basin or depression
Pyroclastic Flow fast-moving current of hot gas and rock that moves away from a volcano
Caldera a large basin-like depression resulting from the explosion or collapse of the center of a volcano.
Volcanic Neck a column of solidified lava or igneous rock formed in a volcanic vent, especially when exposed by erosion.
Igneous Intrusion When lava cools and hardens, it forms igneous rock. Intrusions form when magma cools and solidifies beneath the surface. After many years, erosion and uplifting can cause these features to be seen on the earth’s crust.
Dike vertical intrusions
Sill horizontal intrusions
Rift Valley a large elongated depression with steep walls formed by the downward displacement of a block of the earth's surface between nearly parallel faults or fault systems.
Mid-Ocean Ridge It is an underwater mountain range, formed by plate tectonics. This uplifting of the ocean floor occurs when convection currents rise in the mantle beneath the oceanic crust and create magma where two tectonic plates meet at a divergent boundary.
Volcanic Ash small pieces of pulverized rock, minerals, and volcanic glass created during eruption.
Volcanic Bomb large projectiles thrown through the air
Dormant Volcano A dormant volcano is an active volcano that is not erupting, but supposed to erupt again. An extinct volcano has not had an eruption for at least 10,000 years and is not expected to erupt again in a comparable time scale of the future.
Extinct Volcano a volcano that has not erupted in over 10,000 years and is unlikely to erupt again
Created by: abriana123



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