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Pearson GCSE Combined Science Biology Foundation

What is found in the nucleus of a cell? (DNA or chromosomes)
Name two components, apart from a nucleus, that are found in both animal and plant cells. (e.g. cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes)
Name two components that are only found in plant cells and not animal cells. (e.g. cell wall, large permanent vacuole, chloroplast)
What is a prokaryotic cell? What is a prokaryotic cell? (a cell without a nucleus)
What is a eukaryotic cell? What is a eukaryotic cell? (a cell with a nucleus)
Which of the following is the smallest unit: picometre, micrometre, millimetre, nanometre? (picometre)
What is the function of the jelly coat around an egg cell? (to ensure that only one sperm cell can enter)
Describe the basic function of a light microscope. (to magnify things)
Why do we need new cells? (for growth, repair and to be able to reproduce)
In human cells, what is a chromosome? (a structure found in nuclei, containing a DNA molecule)
List three main features that are usually found in animal cells. (any three from: nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria)
Which cell structure controls what enters and leaves the cell? (cell membrane)
Which cell structure controls how the cell works? (nucleus)
In which cell structure does respiration mainly take place? (mitochondria)
Describe one feature of a human sperm cell that is different from other human cells. (any suitable answer, such as has a tail)
Describe the function of the feature of the sperm cell you described in question 5. (answer based on response to question 5, such as tail helps sperm swim)
What type of cell division forms two identical daughter cells? (mitosis)
In which stage of the cell cycle are the chromosomes duplicated? (interphase)
In which stage of the cell cycle, at the end of mitosis, does the one cell divide into two? (cytokinesis)
What term describes a cell that has two sets of chromosomes? (diploid)
List three main features that are usually found in both plant and animal cells. (any three from: cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes)
List three features found in plant cells but not in animal cells. (large permanent vacuole, chloroplasts, cell wall)
Define the term ‘growth’. (an increase in cell number and size)
Which cell structure in plants contains chlorophyll? (chloroplast)
What is the function of the cell structure that contains chlorophyll? (to capture energy from light for photosynthesis)
Many plant cells have a large structure filled with sap. Name this structure. (large permanent vacuole)
Give two functions of the cell structure filled with sap. (to store cell sap and help keep the cell firm and rigid)
Name the structure that surrounds all plant cells (but not animal cells). (cell wall)
Describe the function of the structure that surrounds plant cells but not animal cells. (supports and protects the cell)
How are roots adapted to absorbing water and mineral salts from the ground? (Root hair cells have long extensions into the soil that increase the surface area for absorption.)
Where are plant meristems found? (tips of plant shoots and roots [also just inside bark of trees])
What happens in a plant meristem? (Cells divide rapidly by mitosis as the plant grows.)
What type of cell is found in meristems? (unspecialised/stem cells)
What happens during cell differentiation? (Cells develop special features that help them carry out a particular function.)
Why is cell differentiation important to plants and animals? (Specialised cells are more effective at carrying out different functions in the body.)
A root hair cell is a specialised cell. What is its function? (to absorb water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil)
How is a root hair cell specialised to carry out its function? (It has a long extension into the soil that increases the surface area for absorption.)
What is the function of a xylem vessel? (to carry water and mineral salts through the plant)
Explain how one specialisation of a xylem vessel helps it carry out its function. (any one from: thickened wall to prevent collapse of tube/withstand pressure of water; no cell cytoplasm and lost cell walls to form long tubes through which water flows up the plant; small holes in thick cell wall
Name one feature, other than mass, that could be measured to show growth in a plant. (any suitable measure that will show change over time, such as: height, tree girth, leaf area, number of leaves)
Name the type of cell division that cells use to make identical copies of themselves. (mitosis)
What type of cell has the ability to differentiate into specialised cells? (stem cell)
In what organ system would you find nerve cells? (the nervous system)
Are nerve cells diploid or haploid? (diploid)
What part of a nerve cell contains chromosomes? (nucleus)
What part of a nerve cell makes proteins? (the ribosomes)
Nerve cells require a lot of energy. What cell structure would you expect them to have a lot of? (mitochondria)
What is a nerve cell specialised to do? (carry electrical signals/impulses)
List your senses. (touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell, balance, heat detection and plenty of others)
State the name of one organ in the nervous system. (brain, spinal cord or nerves, or a named sense organ)
What two types of light sensitive cells are in the retina? Rod and Cones
What two structures refract light in the eye? Cornea and lens
What type of lens would correct a person who has an eyeball length that is too long (where the image is focussed in front of the retina)? Diverging lens
What part of the eye is not functioning correctly if a person is colour-blind? Cones
What happens to a person’s eye when they get a cataract? protein builds up inside lens to make it cloudy.
Which part of the eye contracts and relaxes to make the lens thicker / thinner? Ciliary muscles
What chemical crosses the gap between two neurones? Neurotransmitter
What is the name of the nerve pathway that involves a quick action in response to potential harm to the body? Reflex Arc
Name the three neurones in order of which they are used by the body. Sensory neurone, relay neurone, motor neurone
Which neurones are connected to effectors? Motor neurones
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