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SB7

Pearson GCSE Separate Science Biology

QuestionAnswer
Which cells in the nervous system detect changes? (receptor cells)
Sense organs contain receptors cells. Give one example of a sense organ. (e.g. eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin)
Which parts of the body cause the response to a stimulus? (effectors)
Give an example of an effector. (one of: muscle, gland)
In what form is information transmitted in the nervous system? ((electrical) impulses)
How are soluble chemical substances (e.g. digested food molecules) carried around the body? (e.g. digested food molecules) carried around the body? (in the blood/plasma)
Name one hormone produced in the male reproductive system. (testosterone)
Name one hormone produced by ovaries. (one of: oestrogen, progesterone)
Which general name is given to an organ that responds to a hormone? (target organ)
What effect do hormones have on organs that respond to them? (change how the organ is working)
What is the name for a gland that produces a hormone? (endocrine gland)
Name the organ that produces oestrogen. (ovary)
Name the organ at the base of the brain that produces many hormones. (pituitary gland)
What is the name for an organ that is affected by a hormone? (target organ)
Name an organ that is affected by growth hormone. (bones/muscles)
How do hormones travel around the body? (in the blood)
Which hormone brings about changes in a boy’s body during puberty? (testosterone)
Where is adrenalin made? (adrenal glands)
Describe one effect of adrenalin on the body. increases heart rate, increases breathing rate, increases blood pressure, increases blood sugar concentration, or dilates pupils
What is the role of thyroxine in the body? (to control metabolic rate)
What name is given to a substance produced in the body that changes how its target organs work (hormone)
Name the endocrine gland that produces testosterone. (testis/testes)
How does testosterone get from where it is made to its target organs? (in blood)
Name the hormone that produces changes in girls as they become women. (oestrogen)
H In which gland is thyroxine produced? (thyroid gland)
H What is the function of thyroxine in the body? (controls metabolic rate)
H Which hormone controls the fight or flight response? (adrenalin)
H Which term describes when a change in a system causes the opposite change, returning the system to a normal level? (negative feedback)
What name is given to the cycle of changes in a woman’s reproductive system that happens every month? (menstrual cycle)
What name is given to methods that prevent fertilisation? (contraception)
Which term describes the cycle of changes in a woman’s body that happens about every 28 days? (menstrual cycle)
On approximately which day of the menstrual cycle is an egg cell released from an ovary? (day 14)
Name two hormones that help to control the menstrual cycle. (two of: oestrogen, progesterone, FSH, LH – although the latter two will probably not have been covered yet)
State where oestrogen is produced. (ovaries)
How do changes in the blood concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone trigger menstruation? (Concentrations of both hormones decrease.)
Which term describes any method used to reduce the chance of pregnancy? (contraception)
Give one example of a physical barrier method of contraception. (any one suitable method, such as:condom, diaphragm/cap)
Which endocrine organ produces the hormones FSH and LH? (pituitary gland)
A surge in blood concentration of which hormone triggers the release of an egg from an ovary? (LH)
Which three-letter abbreviation is used to describe a method of increasing the chance of pregnancy by fertilising an egg cell outside the body? (IVF)
In the menstrual cycle, what usually happens at about day 14? (ovulation)
What change in the concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone causes menstruation? (Concentrations of both hormones decrease.)
How does use of a condom during sexual activity help to reduce the risk of pregnancy? (prevents sperm reaching the egg)
How does the combined contraceptive pill help to reduce the risk of pregnancy? (one of: contains hormones that prevent ovulation/reduces chance of sperm reaching egg)
H A surge in concentration of which hormone triggers ovulation? (LH)
H Which hormone stimulates the growth and maturation of an egg follicle? (FSH)
H Which hormone treatment can be given to women who rarely ovulate, to increase their chance of ovulation? (clomifene therapy)
H In which ART technique is a woman given two natural hormones to cause the release of many eggs from her ovaries? (IVF)
Name one target organ of insulin that helps to reduce blood glucose concentration. (muscle/liver)
What name is given to the condition in which people cannot control their blood glucose concentration properly? (diabetes)
Which term means maintaining a constant internal environment? (homeostasis)
What effect does eating food have on blood glucose concentration? (increases)
What effect does exercise have on blood glucose concentration? (decreases)
Which hormone(s) control(s) blood glucose concentration? (insulin, H glucagon)
Which endocrine gland produces this hormone/H these hormones? (pancreas)
What happens to glucose taken into liver cells as a response to a hormone? (changed to glycogen)
What causes type 1 diabetes? (no insulin produced)
What type of treatment must someone with type 1 diabetes have for the rest of their lives? (injection of insulin)
What causes type 2 diabetes? (either not enough insulin produced, or insulin target cells do not respond properly)
How is type 2 diabetes correlated with body mass? (Increasing body mass increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.)
Which hormone reduces blood glucose concentration? (insulin)
What are the target cells for insulin? (liver and muscle cells)
What is the condition in which a person does not produce insulin? (type 1 diabetes)
What is the condition in which a person does not produce enough insulin or their target cells do not respond properly to it? (type 2 diabetes)
What effect does exercise have on blood glucose concentration? (reduces it)
What might a doctor suggest diabetics reduce in their diet? (sugar/glucose)
How is body mass correlated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes? (positive correlation/risk increases as mass increases)
How does the body respond to being too cold? (shivering/goosebumps/reduction of blood flow near the skin)
How does the body respond to being too hot? (sweating/increased blood flow near the skin)
Which term means control of body temperature? (thermoregulation)
Which term means control of body temperature? (thermoregulation)
Which part of the body monitors and controls body temperature? (hypothalamus)
In which layer of the skin are sweat glands? (dermis)
How does sweat on the skin help to cool the body? (It evaporates/transfers ‘heat’ from body to surroundings.)
What causes goosebumps? (contraction of hair erector muscles)
H Which term means narrowing of blood vessels? (vasoconstriction)
When the body is too cold, what happens to increase the release of energy inside the body, causing warming? (shivering of muscles)
What effect would too high a body temperature have on enzymes? slow or stop them working)
Name two organs of the urinary system. (any two from: kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra)
Which term means control of body water content? (osmoregulation)
What is controlled during osmoregulation? (body water content)
How does osmoregulation protect animal cells? (prevents too much gain/loss of water [which could damage their membranes or stop processes in the cytoplasm from working])
Which body system contains these organs: bladder, ureters, kidneys? (urinary/excretory system)
In which organ is urea made? (liver)
What does urea come from? (breakdown of excess amino acids)
Which treatment for kidney failure exchanges substances between the blood and a fluid to restore normal blood concentrations? (dialysis)
Name one other treatment for kidney failure. (transplant)
Which two processes produce urine inside the kidney? (filtration and reabsorption)
H ADH is the hormone that controls the amount of water that leaves the body in urine. Where is ADH produced? (pituitary gland)
 

 



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