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Block3 Up GI Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Ansa cervicalis emerges from which somatic nerve plexus? Cervical plexus
Which spinal nerves (ventral rami) from the ansa cervicalis? C1-3
C1 spinal nerve hitchhikes with which CN? Hypoglossal (CNXII)
C1 divides into two parts. What do the two parts innervate? One part continues w/CNXII toward anterior neck and innervates thyrohyoid muscle and geniohyoid. Other part forms superior root of ansa cervicalis.
What spinal nerves form the inferior root of ansa cervicalis? C2-3
What does ansa cervicalis innervate? Infrahyoid muscles (except thryohyoid muscle - innervated by C1)
If the suprahyoid muscles are contracting with the infrahyoid muscles, what happens? the hyoid bone is held in place and becomes a firm base for movements of the tongue
4 pairs of mastication muscles that produce movements at the TMJ Masseter, temporalis, medial and lateral pterygoid muscles
All mastication muscles are innervated by Mandibular nerve (CN V3)
Masseter muscle action Close Jaw
Temporalis muscle action Close and retract jaw
Medial pterygoid muscle (just under Masseter) Close jaw, side to side movement
Lateral pterygoid muscle (just under Masseter) Open and protract jaw, side to side movement
Tongue is divided in half by Medium fibrous septum extending entire length of tongue and attaches to hyoid bone
Intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)
Extrinsic tongue muscle that protrudes the tongue (sticks it out) Genioglossus muscle
Extrinsic tongue muscle that depresses and retracts tongue Hyoglossus muscle
Extrinsic tongue muscle that elevates and retracts tongue Styloglossus muscle
Dorsum surface of anterior tongue TOP
Ventral surface of anterior tongue SUBLINGUAL
Posterior (root) of tongue is located? In oropharynx, attached to hyoid bone
Dorsum of the tongue: Apex (at end), terminal sulcus (at back with:) foramen cecum
Ventral surface of the tongue: Lingual frenulum (secures tongue to floor), sublingual folds (btw floor and tongue covers sublingual glands), sublingual papillae (openings for sbmandibular gland ducts), lingual vein (absorption)
Hard palate openings: Greater palatine foramen, lesser palatine foramen, and incisive foramen
The duct of which salivary gland penetrates the cheek? Parotid salivary gland
What 2 muscles form the floor of the oral cavity? Mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles
What two salivary glands are on the floor of the oral cavity? Submandibular and sublingual salivary glands
All soft palate muscles are innervated by the pharyngeal branch of the _____ nerve, except the ___________ muscle that is innervated by ______ nerve. VAGUS, TENSOR PALATINI, MANDIBULAR (CN V3)
The tensor palatini muscle does? Tenses the palate
Levator palatini does? Elevate palate
Which soft palate muscle forms the palatine aponeurosis? Tensor palatini
Musculus uvulae muscles do? Seal pharyngeal isthmus closed
Musculus uvulae muscles are innervated by? Pharyngeal plexus (pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve)
Palatoglossus muscle does? Depresses palate, elevates posterior tongue, narrows fauces
Palatoglossus muscle is innervated by? Pharyngeal plexus (pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve)
Palatopharyngeus muscle does? Depresses palate, narrows fauces
Palatopharyngeus muscle is innervated by? Pharyngeal plexus (pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve)
Which soft palate muscle forms the bulk of the soft palate? Levator palatini
The three constrictor muscles of the pharynx (superior, middle, inferior) meets posteriorly forming a Raphe junction
The superior, middle, and inferior muscles of the pharynx attach to: 1.mandible and base of skull, 2.hyoid bone, 3.thyroid and cricoid cartilages (respectively)
The three constrictor muscles act to constrict the pharynx to propel a bolus of food toward the esophagus
The three constrictor muscles of the pharynx are innervated by Pharyngeal plexus (pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve)
The three longitudinal muscles of the pharynx are Salpingopharyngeus, Palatopharyngeus, Stylopharyngeus
The three longitudinal muscles of the pharynx act to Elevate the pharynx during swallowing
The three longitudinal muscles of the pharynx is innervated by Pharyngeal plexus (except the stylopharyngeus muscles which is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX)
Palatoglossal fold of the lateral wall of the oropharynx contains palatoglossus muscle of the soft palate
Palatopharyngeal fold of the lateral wall of the oropharynx contains the palatopharyngeus muscle of the soft palate.
The palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal folds on each side form the fauces (pillars) which has the palatine tonsil inside
Within the palatine tonsillar bed, the glossopharyngeal nerve passes through the pharyngeal space #2 to Branch into tonsilar branch (somatic sensory to fauces and palatine tonsillar bed) and lingual branch that penetrates the posteror tongue
Where is the lingual tonsil? Posterior 1/3 of the tongue (no taste buds here)
Innervation to posterior 1/3 of tongue? Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Vallate papillae are? on boundary btw anterior and posterior tongue and are covered w/numerous taste buds
Special sensory innervation to taste buds are from: Glossopharyngeal nerve, lingual branch
Posterior tongue is anchored to the anterior surface of the epiglottis by Median glossoepiglottic fold, and lateral glossoepiglottic folds
Vallecula Depression formed in the mucosa btw median and lateral glossoepiglottic fold
Food bolus is divided in two by: median glossoepiglottic fold then rolls thru each respective vallecula
Visceral sensory fibers from _________ are located w/in the valleculae and inform the brain that liquid or food is nearing the lower airway. internal laryngeal nerve (superior laryngeal nerve of the vagus)
Piriform recesses Depression on each anterior side of hypopharynx along the posterior aspect of the larynx
Upper piriform recess innervation and blood supply Internal laryngeal nerve (visceral sensory and parasympathetic), superior laryngeal artery
Lower piriform recess innervation and blood supply Recurrent laryngeal nerve(visceral sensory and parasympathetic), inferior laryngeal artery
Esophagus begins and constricts at: C6 opposite the cricoid cartilage
Esophagus transverses the diaphram through the esophageal hiatus at: T10 vertebral level at the gastroesophageal jn (second constriction point)
Pretracheal fascia surrounds: Thyroid gland, trachea, and esophagus
Pretracheal fascia on posterior surface of the pharynx and esophagus is called: buccopharyngeal fascia (extends all the way down along the esophagus to the diaphram)
Space btw prevertebral fascia and buccopharyngeal fascia: Retropharyngeal space (infections from head can escape into this space and travel to the diaphragm)
Describe the structures passing through space #1 btw the constrictor muscles in the pharyngeal wall Covered w/pharyngeal fascia so no structures pass through
Describe the structures passing through space #2 btw the constrictor muscles in the pharyngeal wall Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and pharyngeal vessels (branches of the external carotid artery)
Describe the structures passing through space #3 btw the constrictor muscles in the pharyngeal wall Internal laryngeal nerve (branch of vagus) and superior laryngeal vessels (branches of the superior thyroid artery)
Describe the structures passing through space #4 btw the constrictor muscles in the pharyngeal wall Recurrent laryngeal nerve (branch of vagus) and inferior laryngeal vessels (branches of inferior thyroid artery of subclavian artery)
Created by: THerzogA