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# PC Science S1 Vocab

### PC Science Semester 1 Virtual Science Notebook Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Force a push or pull exerted on an object
Net Force the overall force on an object when all individual forces acting on an object are added together
Unbalanced Forces a nonzero net force that changes an object's motion
Balanced Forces equal forces acting on an object in opposite direction
Gravity the pulling force between objects
Friction a force that opposes motion
Inertia the tendency of a moving object to continue in a straight line or a stationary object to remain in place
Acceleration a change of motion by an unbalanced force acting on an object
Direction a straight path that an object can move along
Frame of Reference a system that uses coordinates or background objects to establish position or to measure movement of a point of space
Mass a measure of how much matter is present in a substance
Motion the phenomenon in which an object changes its position over time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, speed, and time
Newtons unit of measurement for force
Force Vector a representation of a force that has both magnitude and direction
Speed the rate of change in position (or distance traveled) with respect to time, speed (s) is distance (d) per time (t) or s=d/t. An example of speed is 3 meters per second.
Gravitational Force the force that causes objects with mass to attract one another. Gravitational attraction depends on two things: mass and distance
Attractions having the tendency to pull other objects toward itself
Weight measure of the force of gravity on an object
Surface Friction a force that one surface exerts on another when the two come in contact with each other. The force of friction depends on two things: types of surfaces, and how hard the surfaces are pushed together
Rolling Friction friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface
Sliding Friction friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another
Fluid Friction friction that occurs as a object moves through a fluid (a gas or a liquid)
Air Resistance the fluid friction experienced by objects falling through air
Free Fall the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity (9.8 m/s^2)
Terminal Velocity the maximum velocity a falling object achieves
Static Friction prevents objects from moving and is generally higher than the frictional force experienced by the same two objects when they are moving relative to each other
Tilt the slant of earth's axis
Axis the imaginary line that runs north to south
Cyclic Patterns the process where it repeats itself
Eclipse the line up of two objects that create a certain light
Lunar Eclipse when a full moon passes earth's shadow, which makes the moon appear red
Lunar Phase the shapes representing what phases the moon has seen from earth
Moon the celestial body that revolves around a planet
Orbit a curved path followed by a satellite as it revolves around an object
Seasons the four divisions of the year based on temperature change due to the tilt of the earth
Solar Eclipse when the moon passes between the Earth and the Sun
Solar System the groups of planets and stars in space
Star a mass that is made up of gas
Sun a star that revolves around planets, made of hydrogen and helium
Inner Planets the inner planets closest to the Sun are small and rocky: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
Asteroid Belt a region of our solar system - between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter - in which many small bodies orbit our Sun
Outer Planets the outer planets are the gas giants: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Dwarf Planets celestial bodies that orbit a star, but do not meet all the criteria for being a planet
Big Bang Theory a theory that says the universe began as a small point that expanded rapidly about 13.7 billion years ago
Dust tiny particles of matter floating in space; condense under gravity to form stars and planets
Gas a state of matter with indefinite volume and shape
Galaxy families of stars, gases, and space dust groups together in various clusters
Milky Way our home galaxy, the Milky Way, is a spiral galaxy made from between 300-400 billion stars
Spiral Galaxy these galaxies are shaped like discs with arms spiraling from a central bulge. The stars and other objects in a spiral galaxy revolve in the same direction around the galaxy's center, like a spinning pinwheel
Elliptical Galaxy these galaxies look a bit like footballs (An ellipse is an oval) The stars and matter in an elliptical galaxy revolve around the galaxy's center in a variety of directions
Lenticular Galaxy a galaxy that has flat, disc-like shapes. However, unlike spiral galaxies, they lack the distinctive arms that usually wrap themselves around the central bulge, and often have noticeable rings
Irregular Galaxy galaxies that have shapes that are difficult to classify. Some are long and thin, like needles. Others are shaped like rings or clouds

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