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S1, SY 20-21

abiotic factor any nonliving factor in the environment
activation energy the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction
aerobic respiration the oxygen-dependent process in which pyruvate (from glucose) is completely broken down into carbon dioxide to produce large amounts of ATP; occurs in the mitochondria
amino acid carbon compounds that are the monomers (or building blocks), held together by peptide bonds, that make up proteins
anaerobic respiration the oxygen-independent process in which glucose is partially broken down into pyruvate to produce small amounts of ATP; occurs in the cytoplasm
ATP adenosine triphosphate; energy carrying biological molecule which fuels cellular activities; a specialized nucleotide
autotroph an organism that captures energy to produce its own food; also called a producer
biogeochemical cycle the recycling of matter through the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere; fueled by energy from the sun
biological community a group of interacting populations that occupy the same geographic place at the same time
biological population a group of organisms of the same species that occupy the same geographic place at the same time
biomacromolecule a large biological molecule formed by joining smaller organic molecules together
biomagnification the increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in food chains
biotic factor any living factor in the environment
carbohydrate a biomacromolecule containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom; primary energy source for all organisms
catalyst a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy
cell the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms
cell membrane the flexible, selectively permeable boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell; also called the plasma membrane
cellular respiration the metabolic pathway in which organic molecules (glucose) are broken down to release energy (ATP) for use by the cell
chloroplast the organelle found in autotrophs that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy (glucose) through the process of photosynthesis
consumer an organism that cannot make its own food and instead gets its nutrients and energy requirements by feeding on other organisms; also called a heterotroph
detritivore a heterotroph that decomposes organic material and returns the nutrients to the soil, air, and water, making the nutrients available to other organisms; also called decomposer
ecosystem a biological community and all the abiotic factors that affect it
enzyme a protein that acts as a biological catalyst
feedback loop the process of collecting information and comparing it to a set of ideal values in order to maintain homeostasis
food chain a simple model that shows a single possible path in which energy and matter flow through an ecosystem from producer to apex predator
food web a complex model that shows many interconnected food chains and possible pathways in which energy and matter flow through an ecosystem from producer to apex predator
heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food and instead gets its nutrients and energy requirements by feeding on other organisms; also called a consumer
homeostasis the regulation of an organism's internal environment to maintain conditions needed to support life
hydrocarbon an organic molecule composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen
lipid a hydrophobic biomacromolecule composed mostly of hydrocarbons; used for energy storage, cell membranes, and water-proofing
mitochondria the organelles that convert pyruvate (from glucose) into ATP through the process of aerobic respiration
negative feedback a feedback loop that adjusts an organism's internal conditions back toward initial ideal conditions
nitrogen fixation the process in which nitrogen gas (diatomic nitrogen) is captures and converted into a form plants can use
nucleic acid a complex biomacromolecule that stores and communicates genetic information; comprises DNA and RNA
nucleotide a monomer (or subunit) of nucleic acids, formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
organism a single living (or once living) being
phospholipid a biomolecule that consists of two fatty acids and a phosphate group; comprises the phospholipid bilayer (also known as the cell membrane)
photosynthesis the metabolic pathway in which light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of glucose
polymer a large molecule formed from smaller repeating units of identical, or nearly identical, compounds called monomers
positive feedback a feedback loop that increase the rate of change of an organism's internal conditions away from the initial ideal conditions
producer an organism that captures energy to produce its own food; also called an autotroph
protein a biomacromolecule made of amino acid monomers joined by peptide bonds; the primary building block of organisms
transpiration the process in which water evaporates from the inside of plants
trophic level each step in a food chain or food web
quantitative data data reported in numbers
qualitative data information describing physical characteristics
control group the group in an experiment that does not receive the experimental treatment (the independent variable)
experimental group the group in an experiment that receives the variable being tested
independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied; this is graphed on the x-axis
dependent variable the observable effect, outcome, or response in which the experiment is interested; this is graphed on the y-axis
Created by: m.younk
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