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Biology Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
A scientist poses a possible explanation for an observation that has been tested yet. Theory or Hypothesis Hypothesis
Scientist sets up an experiment with 4 groups of wheat plants: group A gets 20 pounds per acre, group B gets 40 pounds per acre, group C gets 60 pounds per acre, and group D gets 0 pounds per acre. Which of the following is the control group? Group D
Which of the following orders is correct in terms of the hierarchy of the organization? Biosphere → Ecosystem →Community → Population → Organism
If the solid form of most molecules is heavier than the liquid form, why does ice float? Water molecules are arranged farther apart when frozen than in liquid form
In the experiment you keep all other factors such as temperature, pH, tadpole density per pan, and amount of food constant (controlled variables). The only thing that is different is the food between the two groups. What is the dependent variable? The dependent variable is the weight of the tadpoles. OR Sex of the baby alligator and temperature respectively.
Groundwater travels upward through soil from wet to dry areas. Both (cohesion and adhesion)
A solution with [H+]=10-7 M is considered ________________________. Neutral Acidic
Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions? They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them.
You conducted an experiment to study the effect of temperature on enzyme activity and have to graph the data. What is the independent variable? The independent variable is the temperature.
A solution with a pH of 2 has how many more protons in it than a solution with a pH of 4? 100 times more
Which phenomenon is attributed to the high surface tension of water? A raft spider can walk across the surface of a small pond.
Briefly describe the role of hydrolysis reactions in macromolecules. Hydrolysis reactions break down polymers into monomers.
Cleaning products like bleach and ammonia are considered Alkaline
Briefly describe the difference between a scientific hypothesis and a research question. A scientific hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a natural process, which is predictive and a research question inquires about the subject of interest.
The ability of identical molecules to stick to each other is termed _____________. Cohesion
A glycosidic linkage is analogous to what bond in proteins? A peptide bond
Briefly describe the role of dehydration reactions in macromolecules. It turns two monomers into a polymer by removing an H2O Molecule to form a bond.
A glycosidic linkage is analogous to which of the following in proteins? A peptide bond
Consider two solutions: solution X has a pH of 4; solution Y has a pH of 7. From this information, we can reasonably conclude that the concentration of hydrogen in solution X is _________ times as great as the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Y. It would be 1,000 times as great
Does the following statement describe a hypothesis or a scientific theory? After conducting numerous investigations, scientists conclude that all living organisms are made of cells. Hypothesis or Theory? Theory
Identify the following example as either cohesion, adhesion or both. Water forms into a drop on a leaf and hangs down, but it does not drop. Both
Does the following statement describe a hypothesis or a scientific theory? Researchers agree on the best explanation that science can offer based on the results of numerous reliable studies Theory
How do phospholipids interact with water molecules? The polar heads interact with water; the nonpolar tails do not.
Which of these liquids would you expect to have the lowest level of adhesion? Water
You disrupt all hydrogen bonds in a protein. What level of structure will be preserved? Primary Structure
The partial negative charge at one end of a water molecule is attracted to the partial positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called? A hydrogen bond
Which of these solutions has the lowest concentration of OH-? Stomach acid
For lipids to be fluid at room temperature, they should have ________. At least one cis double bond
Briefly describe how you would make a 1 mole (mol) solution of glucose (molecular mass of glucose is 180 grams)? 180 grams of glucose in 1 liter solution
You disrupt all ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions and disulfide linkages in a protein. What level of protein structure will be preserved? Primary structure
Which of the following are qualities of any good scientific hypothesis? 1 and 2
A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species at your college could be called a ________. Population
Which of the following categories includes all others in the list? Carbohydrate
How does evaporation help regulate body temperature? When sweat evaporates, heat is removed from the skin, which cools the body
Briefly describe the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis? Dehydration reactions assemble polymers; hydrolysis reactions break polymers apart
The relation between amino acid and polypeptide is similar to the relation between ________. Nucleotide and nucleic acid
Cohesion, surface tension, and adhesion are the properties of water molecules are a result of ________________________. Hydrogen bonding
Identify the following example as either cohesion, adhesion or both. Water forms drops of rain in the air as a result of surface tension. Cohesion
Following a scientific method, which of the following is the correct order of steps? observation -> hypothesis -> experiment -> analysis -> conclusion -> communicate results
What component of the amino acid structure varies among different amino acids? the components of the R group
UNIT 2 UNIT 2
Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in ________. Chloroplasts
An animal cell lacks carbohydrates on the external surface of its plasma membrane. Which function of the extracellular matrix would likely be impaired? Cell-cell recognition
Where is chemical energy stored in ATP? The bonds between the phosphate groups
The presence of the cell wall would most likely interfere with what function of the plasma membrane? Phagocytosis
Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff. Similar stalks left in a 0.15 M salt solution become limp. From this we can deduce that the fresh water ________. must be hypotonic to the salt solution
What will happen to a red blood cell (RBC), which has an internal ion content of about 0.9%, if it is placed into a beaker with 0.2% salt solution? The cell would swell because the water in the beaker is hypotonic relative to the cytoplasm of the RBC.
Choose the following that describes phospholipids in the fluid mosaic model. can move laterally along the plane of the membrane
Briefly describe how endosymbiosis might have led to the evolution of an animal cell. a large prokaryotic cell probably engulfed a smaller oxygen using, ATP-producing prokaryotic cell that developed into an endosymbiont and later an animal cell
Which of these molecules are least likely to diffuse through the cell membrane? Small ions
Examination of a cell by transmission electron microscopy reveals a high density of ribosomes in the cytoplasm. This observation suggests that this cell is actively producing large amounts of which of the following molecules? proteins in the cytoplasm
Where are proteins produced other than on ribosomes free in the cytosol or ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum? in mitochondria
Which of the following statements correctly describes the normal tonicity conditions for typical plant and animal cells when compared to pure water? an isotonic solution for plant cells and a hypertonic solution for animal cells
The inability of an animal cell to add polysaccharides to proteins would involve and affect which components of the cell? Golgi apparatus and extracellular matrix
What organelle would you expect to find in abundance in a cell that secretes large quantities of lipids? The endoplasmic reticulum
Which of these describes a catabolic pathway? a pathway that breaks down molecules into smaller subunits
Classify the following statement as a description of prokaryotic cells or eukaryotics cells. Prokaryotic cells
Cytoplasmic channels connecting adjacent animal cells are called ______________ Gap junctions
Name one organelle not part of the endomembrane system. O2
Which of these molecules would most likely diffuse through the cell membrane? small and hydrophobic
A phospholipid bilayer with equal amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids displays a certain fluidity. What effect will increasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in the bilayer have on the membrane's fluidity? Membrane fluidity will increase
A phospholipid bilayer with equal amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids displays a certain fluidity. What effect will decreasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in the bilayer have on the membrane's fluidity? The membrane's fluidity will decrease
Name a macromolecule that stores potential energy in organisms? Carbohydrates
Which of the following is involved in pseudopodia? growth of actin filaments to form bulges in the plasma membrane
Name a macromolecule that leaves the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell through pores in the nuclear membrane? Nucleic acid
Classify the following statement as a description of prokaryotic cells or eukaryotics cells. Is a generally small cell. Prokaryotic cells
What will happen to a red blood cell (RBC), which has an internal ion content of about 0.9%, if it is placed into a beaker with 2% salt solution? The cell would shrink because the water in the beaker is hypertonic relative to the cytoplasm of the RBC.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the normal tonicity conditions for typical plant and animal cells? a hypotonic solution for plant cells and an isotonic solution for animal cells
Which of the following characteristic would describe an peripheral membrane protein? hydrophilic
What organelle adds polysaccharides to proteins? Golgi Apparatus
____________ allow ions to travel from the cytoplasm of one plant cell to the cytoplasm of a neighboring cell. plasmodesmata
What structure prevents partially digested material to leak passively between the cells of the small intestine into the abdominal cavity? Tight junctions
Name one structure that is common to plant, animal and bacterial cells. Ribosomes
Why there is a limit on cell size? due to the ratio of surface area to volume
Which protein of the plasma membrane contains hydrophobic domains? integral membrane proteins
Which of the following is a small sac that functions in storage and transport within a cell? Vesicle
Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become limp. Similar stalks left in a 0.15 M salt solution become stiff. From this we can deduce that the fresh water ________. must be hypertonic to the salt solution
The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved ________. endosymbiosis of an oxygen-using bacterium in a larger bacterial host cell-the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria
Which cell would be best for studying lysosomes? phagocytic white blood cell
Suppose a cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from ________. nearly any eukaryotic organism
Prokaryotes are present in which domains of life? Bacteria and Archaea
UNIT 3 UNIT 3
What occurs after electrons flow through the electron transport chain? the increase of pH inside the matrix
Select one of the following scenarios that would promote chemiosmosis in mitochondria? The pH of the intermembrane space decreases and ATP is synthesized.
Consider the following reaction. Determine which reactants are oxidized or reduced. Consider the following reaction. Determine which reactants are oxidized or reduced. 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2O + Energy → C 6H 12O 6 + 6 O 2 CO2 is reduced and H2O is oxidized.
Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration? oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
What is the source of molecular oxygen (O2) produced in plants during the light-dependent reactions? Water
Which of the following sequences describes the path by which electrons travel downhill energetically in aerobic respiration? glucose → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen
In plant cells, the use of both photosystems produces ATP and NADPH using light energy and releasing oxygen as a by-product. This describes which metabolic pathway of photosynthesis? linear electron flow
What is the immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation? H + concentration gradient across a membrane.
What happens when a cell has enough ATP? Anabolic processes are activated to store glycogen in the cells.
What is the function of the reaction center in chloroplasts? They split water and release oxygen from the reaction-center chlorophyll.
Select one of the following scenarios that would promote chemiosmosis in chloroplasts? The pH of the thylakoid space increases and ATP is synthesized.
Briefly describe what occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle? DNA synthesis
If a cleavage furrow begins to develop between two cells, this cell is most likely an animal cell in the process of cytokinesis.
What is formed after the removal of carbon dioxide from a pyruvate? acetyl CoA
Is this statement TRUE or FALSE : Autotrophic bacteria are also capable of photosynthesis because they contain photosynthetic pigments in their thylakoid membranes. TRUE
What occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell? glycolysis and fermentation
In chloroplasts, an electron transport chain pumps protons from the __________ into the __________. stroma; thylakoid space
One molecule of glucose (C 6H 12O 6) in aerobic cellular respiration yields approximately how many ATP? 30-32
Consider the following reaction. Determine which reactants are oxidized or reduced. C 6H 12O 6 + 6 O 2 → 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2O + Energy C 6H 12O 6 is oxidized and O 2 is reduced
What are the products of linear electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis? ATP and NADPH
Which sequence of events or reactants correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis? H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle
The absorption of energy by chlorophyll molecules of the reaction-center complex results in the excitement of an electron which is transferred to an electron acceptor. What occurs next? A molecule of water is split
In the absence of oxygen, some cells can obtain energy by fermentation, which results in the production of what molecules ? ATP, CO2, and ethanol
What is the name of the microtubule-organizing center found in animal cells as an identifiable structure present during all phases of the cell cycle? centrosome
Assume a group of cells were isolated and found to have 2X times more DNA than cells in G1. These cells are most likely in what stage of the cell cycle ? in the S phase of the cell cycle
Where are ATP synthase complexes located in plant cells? thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane
How do kinetochore microtubules facilitate the process of splitting centromeres? They create tension by pulling chromosomes toward opposite poles.
In mitochondria, an electron transport chain pumps protons from the __________ into the __________. matrix; intermembrane space
Oxygen is considered a metabolic fork in cellular respiration. What part of respiration still occurs even if oxygen is not present? substrate-level phosphorylation or glycolysis
After glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what needs to occur for the Calvin Cycle to restart? regeneration of RuBP
Select the answer that best describes the distinction between photosynthesis and respiration? Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; cellular respiration releases energy from complex organic molecules.
Briefly describe why the cell cycle and mitosis are not the same thing. mitosis is a sequence of events within the cell cycle that separates the genetic material
The figure shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different? Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a.
Which of the following would occur if cytokinesis occured without interphase? cells containing half of their DNA content.
Choose the statement that accurately describes the mitochondrial electron transport chain It consists of a series of redox reactions
Consider the following reaction. List the reactants that are reduced during this reaction. Consider the following reaction. List the reactants that are reduced during this reaction: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 CO2 is reduced
List ALL phases (and stages) of the cell cycle. Interphase (G1, S, G2), Mitosis (prophase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase)
Assume a diploid cell has 12 chromosome pairs. How many sister chromatids will be found in a nucleus at the end of mitosis? 24
Before the cell can go through mitosis, it must undergo various phases and prepare itself for cell division. What are these phases called and briefly describe what each phase is responsible for? G1 Cell growth, S Phase DNA synthesis, and G2 Prepares to divide.
Which of these has to occur before mitosis begins? The genetic material of the cell must be duplicated
What happens to a glucose molecule when it loses a hydrogen atom as the result of fermentation? The glucose molecule is oxidized
Created by: I_lovesprinklez
 

 



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