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7-6 JMS Heredity chapter 11 CPO

Purebred A condition when the paired genes for a trait are the same.
Hybrid A condition in which the paired genes for a trait are different.
Dominant allele The form of the gene that, when present, covers up the appearance of the recessive allele.
Recessive allele The form of a gene that is hidden when the dominant allele is present.
Phenotype The form of the trait that an organism displays.
Genotype The alleles of a gene an organism contains.
Gene A unit that determines traits.
Genetics The study of heredity.
Alleles Different forms of a gene
Heredity A set of traits an organism receives from its parents
Punnett Square Shows all of the possible combinations of alleles from the parents
True-breeding plant Will always produce offspring with the same form of a trait when it self-plollinates
Cross-pollination When the pollen from one plant is used to fertilize another plant
Trait A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring
Probability The mathematical chance that an event will occur
Incomplete dominance When the phenotype of the two alleles blends
Codominance When an organism that has both alleles of a gene displays both phenotypes at the same time.
Polygenetics Traits that are determined by more than one gene.
Homozygous dominant A condition in which the paired genes are the same case represented by upper case letters
Heterozygous A condition in which the paired genes for a trait are different;often referred to as hybrid
Homozygous recessive A condition in which the paired genes are the same represented by lower case letters
DNA replication The process of a DNA molecule making a copy of itself
Base sequence The order of base pairs along a gene
Adenine pairs with Thymine
Guanine pairs with Cytosine
Protein synthesis The production of proteins in the cell
Messenger RNA (mRNA) Carries the three-letter codes from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
Transfer RNA (tRNA) Decodes the base sequence and carries the correct amino acids to the ribosome.
Protein A chain of amino acids
Base codes of mRNA Uracil, cytosine, guanine, adenine
Mutation A change in the hereditary material of an organism
Genetic disorder An abnormal condition that an organism inherits
Selective breeding The process of selecting organisms with desired traits to serve as parents for the next generation
Genetic engineering The process of transferring genes from one organism into the DNA of another organism
DNA Fingerprinting The process of producing an image of patterns from someone's DNA
Genome The total amount of hereditary material in a single cell of an organism
mitochondrial DNA DNA that is found in the mitochondria. Inherited only from the mother.
Created by: rushjms



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