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Space

6.11ABC, 7.9AB SPACE

TermDefinition
CELESTIAL OBJECTS Objects such as planets, moons, & stars that are located in the sky or in space.
SYSTEM Group of interacting or interdependent parts forming a complex whole; for example, all the factors or variables in an environment, or all the planetary bodies revolving around a star.
SOLAR SYSTEM Sun together with the group of planets & other celestial bodies that are held by its gravitational attraction & revolve around it.
GRAVITY Force that causes objects with mass to attract one another.
ORBITAL PATH Gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space.
SUN Luminous celestial body around which Earth & other planets revolve & from which they receive heat & light.
STAR Ball of gas in space that produces its own light & heat.
PLANET Any of the large celestial bodies that revolve around the Sun in the solar system.
INNER PLANET Any of the rocky, terrestrial planets of Mercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars, whose orbits are inside the asteroid belt.
ROCKY Made of rocks.
TERRESTRIAL Earth-like; "Terra-" = Earth
OUTER PLANET Any of the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, & Neptune, whose orbits lie beyond the asteroid belt.
ASTEROIDS Large & small rocks or metallic masses orbiting the Sun; made up of materials similar to those that formed the planets.
ASTEROID BELT Region between the inner & outer planets where most asteroids orbit around the Sun.
METEOROID Natural chunk of rock or dust existing outside of Earth’s atmosphere.
METEOR Small object that enters Earth’s atmosphere from space & burns due to friction, thus emitting light.
METEORITES Remains of meteoroids that strike the surface of Earth or the Moon.
SATELLITE Something that orbits around another object; for example, a moon orbiting a planet or a human-made object orbiting Earth.
MOON Celestial body that revolves around a planet.
COMET Celestial body of ice, dust, & rock with an elongated & elliptical orbit.
COMA Glowing, heated dust & vaporized gas that surrounds the icy comet nucleus as it travels near the Sun; solar winds cause heated gases to stream out of the nucleus & form a tail that points away from the Sun.
GRAVITY Force that causes objects with mass to attract 1 another.
GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION Force that pulls 2 objects towards each other; greater an object's' mass, the greater the attraction; further apart the objects, the weaker the attraction.
NEWTON'S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION Law that says every object in the universe attracts every other object, & force is affected by mass & distance: greater the mass of an object, the greater the attraction; farther apart the objects, the weaker the attraction.
MASS Amount of matter in an object; a body or object.
SIR ISAAC NEWTON English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, & author who's widely recognized as 1 of the most influential scientists of all time, & a key figure in the scientific revolution; considered the founder of the concept for GRAVITY.
SPACE EXPLORATION Investigation of physical conditions in space & on stars, planets, & other celestial bodies through use of satellites, space probes, or spacecraft w/human crews.
ROCKET Engine that provides thrust directly through the burning of its fuel without requiring intake of air.
SPACECRAFT Vehicle or device designed for travel or operation outside Earth's atmosphere.
SPACE SHUTTLE Reusable spacecraft designed to transport people & cargo between Earth & space.
SPACE PROBE Unmanned spacecraft designed to explore solar system & transmit data back to Earth.
ROVER Vehicle for exploring surface of an extraterrestrial body (like the Moon & Mars).
SATELLITE Object that orbits around another object, like a moon orbiting a planet or a human-made object orbiting Earth.
TELESCOPE Instrument for viewing or detecting distant objects.
OBSERVATORY Building or place given over to or equipped for observation of natural phenomena.
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION Orbiting space satellite used for scientific & space research; construction began in 2001 with 16 other nations.
GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) Father of modern science; made improvements to the telescope; discovered 4 largest moons of Jupiter, among many other scientific accomplishments.
ASTRONAUT Person trained to be part of a spacecraft crew.
NASA National Aeronautics & Space Administration; American governmental agency dedicated to space exploration.
ATMOSPHERE Entire mass of air that surrounds Earth, made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, & trace amounts of other gases.
OZONE LAYER Gas in Earth’s atmosphere that absorbs most of the damaging high-energy ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the Sun; can cause tanning, sun burning, & skin cancers.
SOLAR WINDS Continuous stream of charged particles from the Sun, w/ variations in the stream causing beautiful aurora displays (northern lights), & geomagnetic storms that knock out power grids on Earth.
EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD Magnetic lines of force from Earth’s polar north & south, acting like a giant magnet.
MAGNETOSPHERE Area that deflects & traps harmful particles; resulting from an interaction of Earth’s magnetic field with solar “wind” (charged plasma) streaming from the Sun.
COMPOSITION Combination of parts or elements that make up something; e.g., Earth's atmosphere is composed mostly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), & trace amounts of CO2, ozone, water vapor, & other gases.
PROXIMITY Nearness in space, time, or relationship; e.g., Earth's proximity to the sun allows it to maintain proper temperatures to sustain life.
SPACEWALK An activity in which an astronaut moves around and does work outside a spacecraft while in space.
SPACESUIT A complex system of garments that allow astronauts to work safely outside their spacecraft.
MICROMETEOROIDS Tiny meteoroids traveling fast enough to damage spacecraft.
MICROGRAVITY The condition in which people or objects appear to be weightless.
VACUUM A volume of space mostly empty of matter, such as oxygen to breathe.
Created by: trauberk
 

 



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