Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

1/1 FAS

Failure to Thrive (FTT) Essentials of Dx: Persistent ___ over time. ___ failure associated w/ disordered ___ & ___. Wt <___ %ile for age. Wt decreases __ major %iles over any time period & continues to fall. WT LOSS, GROWTH, BEHAVIOR, DEVO, 3RD, 2
Microcephaly: head circ below average b/c ___ or ___. BRAIN HASN'T DEVELOPED PROPERLY, BRAIN HAS STOPPED GROWING
Microcephaly is often c/b ___ abnormalities during ___. It's assoc. w/ ___, ___ & ___ syndromes, prenatal ___ or ___, infection w/ ___ or ___, exposure to ___, or untreated ___. GENETIC, FETAL DEVO, DOWN SYNDROME, CHROMOSOMAL, NEUROMETABOLIC, DRUG, ALCOHOL ABUSE, GERMAN MEASLES, CHICKEN POX, TOXIC CHEMICALS, PKU
Sx of microcephaly include: ___, delayed ___ fxns & ___, facial ___, ___ or ___, ___, ___, difficulty w/ ___ & ___. MR, MOTOR, SPEECH, DISTORTIONS, DWARFISM, SHORT STATURE, HYPERACTIVITY, SEIZURES, COORDINATION, BALANCE
Ear Tags: occasionally assoc w/ ___.Ear Pits: assoc w/ ___ in ___ syndrome. May become a ___ & ___. HEARING LOSS, HEARING LOSS, BRANCHIO-OTO-RENAL, CYST, GET INFECTED
Humans have __/__ deciduous teeth & __/__ adult teeth. Lower central incisors (__) & first molars (__) come in at age __. Eruption of lower central incisors accounts for __ lower/__ upper. 10/10, 16/16, 2, 4, 6-7, 12, 10
Top 3 causes of MR: ___, ___, & ___. D is MC ___ anomaly (___). X is MC ___ (___ - comes from ___). F is MC ___ (___). 1. DOWN (D), 2. FRAGILE X (X), 3. FAS (F), CHROMOSOMAL, NOT GENETIC, INHERITED, GENETIC, MOM, PREVENTABLE & CONGENITAL, TERATOGENIC
Present at birth, but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal devo (Down’s & FAS) CONGENITAL
Passed on from generation -> generation through gametes; same as hereditary GENETIC
Pertaining to chromosomes; such as mechanical error of separation as in Down’s – not necessarily hereditary CHROMOSOMAL
Mitosis is the process by which a cell ___ it's ___ info (___) in order to generate 2, identical ___. It is generally followed immediately by ___, which divides the ___ & the ___. DUPLICATES, GENETIC, DNA, DAUGHTER CELLS, CYTOKINESIS, CYTOPLASM, CELL MEMBRANE
Mitosis & cytokinesis together define the ___ phase of the cell cycle; the division of the ___ into 2 identical ___, ea w/ the ___ of the parent cell. Mitosis occurs exclusively in ___. MITOTIC (M), MOTHER CELL, DAUGHTER CELLS, GENETIC EQUIVALENT, EUKARYOTIC CELLS
S1: ___ & ___ valve closure. ___ murmur occurs before S2 begins. MITRAL, TRICUSPID, SYSTOLIC
S2: ___ & ___ valve closure. ___ murmur occurs before S1 begins again. AORTIC, PULMONARY, DIASTOLIC
S3: at the end of ___. Called a ___ gallop. “Sloshing in” blood rushing into ___ (Tennessee). Associated w/ ___. Normal in ___ & ___. RAPID VETRICULAR FILLING, PROTO-DIASTOLIC, NON-COMPLIANT VENTRICULAR WALL, DILATED CHF, CHILDREN, YOUNG ADULTS
S4: high ___/___. ___ gallop. “A stiff wall” blood being forced into a ___. Sometimes audible in ___. ATRIAL PRESSURE/STIFF VENTRICLE, PRE-SYSTOLIC, STIFF/HYPERTROPHIC VENTRICLE, HEALTHY CHILDREN
Wide pulse pressure: systolic is the force of the ___, diastolic is the ___. W/ WPP heart is pumping ___ against little ___ (___ or ___). Means blood is ___ & difficult to ___. PUMPING, RESISTANCE, HARD, RESISTANCE, VASODILATION, LOW BV, SLUDGY, MOVE
Ritalin is a CNS ___/ ___ agonist. Blocks ___ uptake in ___ terminals of CNS ___ neurons. Main sites of activity = ___, ___, ___ structures of ___. STIMULANT, ADRENERGIC, DOPAMINE, PRESYNAPTIC, ADRENERGIC, BRAINSTEM, CORTEX, SUBCORTICAL, THALAMUS,
Ritalin is used for: ___, ___. Physical dependence is ___ w/ regular clinical use.SE: ___, ___, ___, ___, ↑___ frequency ADHD, NARCOLEPSY, INFREQUENT, ANOREXIA, HA, INSOMNIA, JITTERY, TIC
Pectus excavatum: a ___ that occurs when ___ joining the ___ & ___ grows excessively=> inward depression & malformed sternum. CONGENITAL DISORDER, CT, RIBS, STERNUM
Severe cases of pectus excavatum can cause ___ & ___ disorders, problems ___, & psychological ___. Causes other than isolated defects are ___, & ___. HEART, LUNG, EXERCISING, INSECURITY, GENETICS, RICKETS
Palmar creases devo in ___ wk PG. Abnormal crease suggests early ___ prob & often linked to disorders like ___ & ___. Should have a ___ & ___ crease. ___ crease that curves up to ___ digits is abnormal. ___ crease happens sporadically in ~___ people. 11-12th, DEVO, DOWN'S, FAS, DISTAL, PROXIMAL, HOCKEY PUCK, 2ND & 3RD, SINGLE, 1 IN 30,
Clinodactily: finger curvature deformity; often ___ usually toward ___. __%population, more common in ___, usually ___. May be inherited or part of ___ or devo ___. Often d/t abnormal ___ devo – often abnormal ___. BILATERAL, MIDLINE, ~10%, MALES, PINKY, SYNDROME, DISORDER, SMALL BONE, GROWTH PLATES
Inability to straighten a joint. Occurs from injury to joint or congenital skeletal abnormality. FLEXION CONTRACTURE
Abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of a joint. ANKYLOSED
Rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward. PRONATION
Fusion of the radius & ulna at their proximal borders. Pts usually present w/ fxnal problems & ↓ed flexibility. PROXIMAL RADIOULNAR SYNOSTOSIS
___ is a known physical finding of FAS. MC benign ___ in infancy (___%): elevated in ___ & ___. HEMANGIOMA, NEOPLASM, 1-3, FEMALES, PREMIES
2 types of hemangiomas: ___ (___): 65% - ___ type, well-defined, bright red nodules. ___: 15% - less distinct ___, raised, ___. Some are combo of both. SUPERFICIAL, STRAWBERRY, CAPILLARY, DEEPER, BORDERS, BLUISH
Hemangiomas develop at ___ weeks, biggest by age ___, disappear by age ___ in 50%, by age ___ in 90%. Consider ___ b/4 tx. 2-4, 1, 5, 9, ANATOMICAL SITE
DTR’s: __ is normal, __ & __ are abnormal 2+. 0, 4+
Rhomberg: tests __. Stand w/ feet __ & arms at __. Pt __ eyes then __ them. __ = + Rhomberg. EQUILIBRIUM, TOGETHER, SIDES, OPENS, CLOSES, FALLING
Babinski: should be __ over 2 yrs old – positive is __ of big toe NEGATIVE, FLEXION
Unable to hop: could be muscle __, also seen in kids w/ FAS is damage to the __, which sends info to the cerebellum about __. WEAKNESS, VERMIS, BALANCE
__ administers foster care in Mo. DSS
Placenta designed to allow __, __, & __ transfer btn mother & fetus, but mom & fetal blood never mix. GAS, NUTRIENT, WASTE
Alcohol is __, __, __, so it easily crosses __ & __. SMALL, FAT SOLUBLE, PARTIALLY NON-POLAR, PLACENTA, BBB
Currently it is believed that __ drinks/day can => __, __, __, __. 2+, LOW BIRTH WT, PRETERM DELIVERY, MISCARRIAGE, PERINATAL MORTALITY
Perinatal period: after __ weeks to __ days after delivery. 22, 7
Alcohol affects on embryo/fetus inc: malformation (MF) of various __ features most likely c/b __ & __ Rs, MF of __ features inc. __ & __. Small __ d/t slowing of __ & __. Long-term use => long term __/__ deficiencies. BRAIN, GABA, NMDA, PHYSICAL, FACE, HEART, BIRTH WT, GROWTH, DEVO, VITAMIN/NUTRITIONAL
GABA is a prominent __ neurotransmitter of the brain. Receptors are very sensitive to __. DEPRESSING, ALCOHOL
NMDA is similar to __ & receptors have a similar response to __. GABA, ALCOHOL
__ receptors significantly respond to alcohol & are believed to be responsible for the __ associated with alcohol. SEROTONIN, NEED
Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are __ & include __, __, __. MORPHOLOGICAL, DYSMORPHISMS, SMALL SIZE, SLOW GROWTH
Alcohol-Related Neurological Disorders (ARND) are __ & __ disorders inc. __ & __. NEUROLOGICAL, COGNITIVE, LEARNING DISABILITIES, LOW IQ
__ barbiturates (like __) can be used during pregnancy, but __ barbiturates are teratogens. SHORT-ACTING, PENTOBARBITAL, REGULAR
Cocaine w/drawal can be treated with __ or __. Women beginning __ in PG can’t quit during PG d/t risk of __. METHODONE, CLONIDINE, METHODONE, FETAL DEATH
Stopping smoke exposure by __ wks gestation greatly lowers problems. Nicotine exposure is associated with higher __ rates, __, __, & __. Avoid nicotine replacement if possible. 16, MISCARRIAGE, ABRUPTION, PRETERM LABOR, LOW BIRTH WT
FAS TRIAD: __ features, __ features, & significant __. Genetics play a role in __. PHYSICAL, BEHAVIORAL, MENTAL RETARDATION, SUSCEPTIBILITY
Neurological problems associated with FAS: defects in fetal neural __ &/or partial-complete absence of __. MIGRATION, CORPUS CALLOSUM
Cerebellar abnormalities associated with FAS: __, __, & agenesis of the __. DYSGENESIS, HETEROTOPIAS, VERMIS
The vermis controls: position & balance of the __. It has both __ & __ neurons so it can check to see that __ are doing what they’re told. TORSO, MOTOR, SENSORY, MUSCLES
Heterotopias is displacement of __ matter usually deep into the __ matter. GREY, WHITE
Neurological & cerebellar abnormalities c/b FAS can be diagnosed by __. MRI
ADD is __ MC in males than females. Sx onset usually ~__; in __. Involves a mismatch between __ & __. 2X, 7Y, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, IQ, ACHIEVEMENT
To be diagnosed with ADD the Sx must be to a degree that is __ & inconsistent with __, causing impairment in __, __, or __ functioning. MALADAPTIVE, BEHAVIORAL LEVEL, SOCIAL, ACADEMIC, OCCUPATIONAL
GAMETES = __ & __. The only cells in the body produced through the process of __. Everything else divides & develops by __. OOCYTES, SPERMATOCYTES, MEIOSIS, MITOSIS
Producing a duplicate cell or 2 copies of a duplicate cell. MITOSIS
Gives us the opportunity to be genetically unique. MEIOSIS
Cell w/ duplicated DNA material -> 2 daughters = to original cell. MITOSIS
DNA replication occurs in the first somatic division. MEIOSIS
Allows for random assortment of mom’s & dad’s chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. RECOMBINATION
Meiosis can lead to __ abnormalities (Down’s, Turner’s, etc). These abnormalities would occur during the __. NON-DYSJUNCTION, 1ST MEIOTIC DIVISION
Gametes with the wrong __ of chromosomes => chromosome __. If the egg & sperm unite => __. Meiotic disturbance typically happens in chromosome __. In x-over of Meiosis I, incomplete division => __ anomaly that’s usually __. #, ANOMALIES, MISCARRIAGE, CHROMOSOME DIVISION, GENETIC, LETHAL
Primary Germ Cells: __ (or 1o oocyte) & __ (or 1o spermatocyte). __ has a single ring of __ cells. 2o oocyte has __. OOGONIA, SPERMATOGONIA, OOGONIA, GRANULOSA, MORE
Oocyte & polar body have __ number chromosomes, but oocyte will __ & PB __. EQUAL, FERTILIZED, DISCARDED
Challenge 50y theory that menopause = eggs used up: In __, ovarian follicle-type SCs from BM txplantation & peripheral blood cell txfusion could migrate from __, to __, __ it, & make __ oocytes in a sterilized mouse & both -> __ of oocytes from __ ovary VIVO, BM, OVARY, REPOPULATE, FERTILIZABLE, RECOVERY, STERILIZED
Spermatogenesis is the transformation of __ into __. __ cells from __ endoderm divide => __. SPERMATOGONIA, SPERM, PRIMORDIAL GERM, YOLK SAC, SPERMATOGONIA
1o spermatocytes are __ in seminiferous tubules in __ period; increase in number at __ (__). They undergo a __ division forming __ spermatocytes (__ meiotic division) DORMANT, FETAL, PUBERTY, 13-16y, REDUCTION, 2, 1st
2o spermatocytes divide to __ spermatids (__ meiotic division). Spermatids transform into __ (__), which move to __, & are stored in the __. 4, 2nd, MATURE SPERM, SPERMIOGENESIS, SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, EPIDIDYMIS
Oogenesis is the transformation of __ into __. __ cells from __ endoderm give rise to __. OOGONIA, OOCYTES, PRIMORDIAL GERM, YOLK SAC, OOGONIA
Oogonia (__) arrest at __ before birth. At puberty, when the __ is activated, 1o oocytes with sufficient __ resume __ directed by __. 1o OOCYTES, PROPHASE I, HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY AXIS, FSH RECEPTORS, MEIOSIS I, FSH
__ of the 1st __ forms a __ & completes __. EXTRUSION, POLAR BODY, 2o OOCYTE, MEIOSIS I
The 2o oocyte arrests at __ (__). __ surge elicits __ of __ follicle (the one with the most __). METAPHASE II, OVUM, LH, OVULATION, DOMINANT, LH RECEPTORS
After __, the 2nd __ is __ & the __ oocyte combines with __ sperm. FERTILIZATION, PB, EXTRUDED, HAPLOID, HAPLOID
Female oocyte is always __. Male sperm ends up being __, so it’s the guy’s fault! 23X, 23X or 23Y
Sperm Stats: __ is the magic number! Average ejaculate sperm count: ___/mL. Sperm are __% motile. __% of sperm are morphologically functional. 60, 60 MILLION, 60, 60
It takes about __ to make sperm (spermatogenesis + spermiogenesis). Average, normal male ejaculate volume is __. Average ejaculate sperm count is __. Both can vary from ejaculate to ejaculate. 2m, 1.5-5.5mL, 20-200 MILLION
Subfertile level in terms of sperm motility & sperm morphology is __%. <20
__: any deviation from the human diploid number of 46 chromosomes. __: an individual that is not the exact multiple of the haploid 23 chromosomes. ANEUPLOIDY, ANEUPLOID
The principle cause of aneuploidy is __ during __, resulting in an unequal distribution of the one pair of __ chromosomes to the __. One cell has __ chromosomes and the other has __ chromosome of the pair. NON-DISJUNCTION, MEIOSIS I, HOMOLOGOUS, DAUGHTER CELLS, 2, NEITHER
__ chromosome gamete + __ chromosome gamete = 45, XO. This is a __ called __. 22, 23X, MONOSOMY, TURNER SYNDROME
Significant __ in pregnancy is the #1 cause of congenital malformations in the US. Mechanism may include inhibition of __. Highest risk during __. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, CELL MIGRATION, 3-8 WEEKS
MR Dx requires: below a certain level in __, __, & __. INTELLIGENCE, ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS, MOTOR SKILLS
MR Dx requires: IQ of about __ or below in someone capable of taking IQ test.IQ encompasses: __, __, __ thinking & __, __, __ perception. 70, MEMORY, VOCAB, CONCEPTUAL, ASSOCIATION, COMPUTATION, PATTERN
MR Dx requires: Impairments or deficits for age group in fxning in __ of the following: communication, __, __, __, school, care of __, social, work. Onset of impairment b/4 age __. >2, COMMUNICATION, HEALTH, LEISURE TIME, SAFETY, SELF & HOME, 18
Learning disability: Grp of __ affecting a broad range of __ & __ skills inc. ability to __, listen, __, write, __, do math, reason, & __. DISORDERS, ACADEMIC, FUNCTIONAL, SPEAK, READ, SPELL, ORGANIZE INFO
A learning disability is not indicative of __. People w/ LDs sometimes have difficulty __ at their __ b/c of a deficit in one or more of the ways the brain __. LOW-INTELLIGENCE, ACHIEVING, INTELLECTUAL LEVEL, PROCESSES INFO
Speech impairment can be due to impaired __ of the cerebrum, more frequently due to slower than normal __. SPEECH CENTERS, MATURATION
2/3 children say 1st words btn __, & 1st word combos b/4 __ b-day 9-12 MOS, 2ND
Diazepam for anti-anxiety: thought to be b/c blocks __ & __ arousal following stimulation of __ pathways. CORTICAL, LIMBIC, RETICULAR
Diazepam for muscle relaxation: from inhibiting both __ & __ pathways; can also directly depress __ & __fxn. MONO-, POLYSYNAPTIC, MUSCLE, MOTOR NERVE
Diazepam for anticonvulsant activity: augment __ inhibition of neurons, limiting spread of __. PRE-SYNAPTIC, ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY
Diazepam is highly __, easily xes __, __, & excreted in __. B/c of this it will build up in __ to very high concentrations. LIPID SOLUBLE, BBB, PLACENTA, BREASTMILK, ADIPOSE TISSUE
PG __: (+) evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse rxn data, but potential benefits may warrant use. When used __ in pregnancy, newborns can go thru __. D, LATE, W/D
Dopamine comes from __ of the brain. These neurons are in the __ of the midbrain, the __, __ of hypothalamus. DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS, VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA, SN PARS COMPACTA, ARCUATE NUCLEUS
GABA is the main __ NT in CNS. There are 3 classes: A, C = ___, B – __. INHIBITORY, LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNELS, GPT-COUPLED RECEPTOR
NMDA: plays role in “__” (__ & __). NMDA receptors respond to: __ & __. SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY, LEARNING, MEMORY, GLUTAMATE, NMDA
Created by: 16813610



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards