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Cardio Drug

Pharm Cardio/Cardio Drug Quiz

aPPT activated partial thromboplastin time: a screening test that helps evaluate a persons ability to appropriately form blood clots
Hypokalemia When bloods potassium levels are too low
Neutropenia is an abnormally low numbers of neutrophils in the blood
PT/INR PT: prothrombin time test; measures how long it take for a clot to form in a blood sample INR: International normalized ratio; a type of calculation based on PT test results
Positive Inotropic effect are medicine that change that force of your hearts contractions
Reye Syndrome a rare but serious condition that causes swelling in the liver and brain
thrombocytopenia deficiency of platelets in the blood, this causes bleeding into the tissues, bruising, and slow blood clotting after injury
anginal chest pain
coagulation thicking
Anti-anginal isosorbide mononitrates & nitroglycerin
Coagulation modifiers heparin, warfarin, enoxaparin, clopidogrel, apixaban, tPA, aspirin
anti- hypertensives lisinopril, losartan, amlodipine, metoprolol (ACE Inhibitors, ARB's, Calcium channel blocker, beta blockers)
Cardiac glycosides digoxin
antilipemic atorvastatin, gemfibrozil
Right side de-oxygenated
left side oxygenated
Angiotensin-Converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors) Lisinopril(Prinvil)&Enalapril(Vasotec) Action: Blocks the conversions of angiotensin I to angiotensin II Uses Hypertension, heart failure, those at high risk for cardiac event Route:oral Considerations:Dry cough, hyperkalemia, doNOT use with pregnancy
All Anti-hypertensives can cause..........????? Orthostatic Hypotension
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) Losartan (Cozaar) *Action Blocks the action of angiotensin II *Uses: Hypertension, stroke, prevention, delay of diabetic neuropathy *Route: oral *Considerations: do NOT use in pregnancy/lactation, use contraception if using during childbearing years
Calcium Channel Blockers Amlodipine( Norvasc) & Diltiazem (Cardizem) Action: Blocks calcium channels in blood vessels leading to vasodilation Uses: Angina &Hypertension, diltiazem can also be used for cardiac dysrhythmias Route :Amlodipine oral/diltiazem oral or IV.
Calcium Channel Blockers Amlodipine( Norvasc) & Diltiazem (Cardizem) Considerations: Peripheral edema, orthostatic hypotension Interactions: digoxin and diltiazem combined can cause a reduced ventricular rate
Beta Adrenergic Blocker Metoprolol(Lopressor)&Atenolol(Tenormin) Action:beta blockade in the myocardium Uses:hypertension, angina, tachydysrhythmia, & heart failure Route:oral & IV Consids: Red. HR; assess BP/P before administering med- DONOT admin, if HR is less than 50 BPM
Beta 2 Blockers such as propranolol can cause....... bronchoconstriction contraindicated with asthma
Cardiac Glycosides DIGOXIN(LANOXIN) Action:Positive inotropic effect with decreased HR Uses:Heart Failure & Dysrhythmias Route:Oral Consids:Hypokalemia&Bradycardia, check pulse rate before giving-less than 60, greater than 100, withhold reversal agent: digibind
Digoxin Toxicity- Fatigue, weakness, vision changes (halo)
Anti-Anginals Therapuetic Goals Increases blood flow through the heart and/or decrease oxygen demand of the myocardium
Anti-Anginal Routes sublingual, buccal, chewable tabs, oral caps/tabs, IV solutions, transdermal patches, ointment, translingual sprays
Anti-Anginal Actions:causes VASODILATION relaxing vasc. smooth muscle *Vasodilation results in reduced myocardial o2 demand Uses:Treat. Angia*Rapidacting forms(nitroglycerin)Treat acute anginal attacks*Longacting forms (isosorbide mononitrate)prevent anginal episode
Anti-Anginal Contraindications: *Head injury d/t increased ICP *Caution with decreased renal/liver function Interaction: *Severe Hypotension: Sildenafil, ETOH, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretic
Anti-Anginal Side Effect: *Headache: use ASA or acetaminophen to relieve pain.should resolve after about 2 weeks of use*Orthostatic Hypotension:avoid sudden position changes. DANGLE *Reflex tachycardia: monitor vital signs, administer betablocker if sym occur
Nitrate/Nitrite Tolerance Occurs with around the clock or long acting form prevented by allowing a reg nitrate free period to allow enzyme transdermal forms: remove 10-12 hr sign of tolerance- more episodes of angina or advance cardiac dysfunction
How to administer nitroglycerin stop activity, sit or lie down take one sublingual tab if no relief in 5 min, call 911 take a 2nd if no relief in 5 min, take a 3rd never chew or swallow, do not drive to hospital, NO MORE THAN 3 DOSES
How to store nitroglycerin Store in airtight, dark glass bottle with metal cap, no cotton filler, instruct patient to keep fresh supply, potency is lost about 3 mon. after bottle open. if burning sensation felt with sub for drug is still potent
Anti-Anginals: Nursing Considerations monitor VS frequent during acute exacerbation, if experiencing chest pain, pt should lie down, iv forms must be given with special non pvc tubing, pt keep record of anginal attacks
Antilipemics Help lower cholesterol especially LDL's Raise LDL's Requires baseline monitoring of total cholesterol
Statins Atrovastatin(Lipitor) Simvastatin(Zocor) Action:decreases manufactures of LDL and VLDL cholesterol, increases manufactures of HDL USES: Hypercholesterolemia ROUTE: Oral CONSIDER:monitor liver function, doNOT use Preg, myopathy INTERACT: grapefruit juice
Coagulation Modification *Used to prevent blood clots which leads to: -Increase perfusion -decrease pain -prevention of further tissue damage *all have an increased bleeding risk
Anticoagulant- Heparin Uses:prompt anticoagulation such as stroke, DVT, PE Measured in UNITS Route: IV & SUBCUT High Alert Drug Monitor aPTT REVERSAL AGENT: PROTAMINE SULFATE
Anticoagulant-Enoxaparin Uses: Prevention of DVT & PE often post-op Monitor Platelet Count Route: Subcut REVESAL AGENT: PROTAMINE SULFATE
Vitamin K Inhibitors- Coumadin(Warfarin) Uses: Prevention of ischemic effects, such as TIA, DVT, & PE Route: PO Monitor: PT/INR Expected Range 2-3
Vitamin K Inhibitors- Coumadin(Warfarin) Consider: Takes 3-5 days to achieve therap effect, consistent intake of veggies needed, keep lab appoint, monitor for signs of bleeding, use soft bristle toothbrush & safety razor REVERSAL AGENT: VITAMIN K
Anti- Platelets Clopidogrel (Placvix) ASA (Aspirin) Action: inhibits platelet aggregation uses:prevention of infarct & ischemic events route:oral Consid: ASA DONOT give to children may lead to reye syndrome: clopidogrel may cause dyspepsia
Xa Inhibitor Apixaban(Eliquis) & Rivaroxaban(Xarelto) action:prevents formation of thrombin uses: stroke prevent. DVT & PE prevent. Route:oral Interactions:ginko biloba, ginger, garlic, glucosamine, can increase risk of bleeding No special diet or specific lab
Thrombolytics Dissolve clots already formed IV only, usually by the RN
Alteplase (tPA) Uses: massive PE & Acute ischemic stroke, restore patency to central cath. benefit in an ischemic emerg. must be given w/ 3hr of onset of sympt. Minimize bleeding reducing # of inject, IV insert, ABG insert-may require direct press. up to 30 min after
Created by: SamMcG11
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