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Biotechnology

Biotechnology (8.L.2.1)

TermDefinition
Biotechnology Using technology and altering living organisms to create useful products
Gene A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Genome All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.
Gene splicing A type of gene recombination in which the DNA is intentionally broken and recombined using laboratory techniques.
Cloning A process in which a cell, cell product, or organism is copied from an original source.
GMO (aka genetically modified organisms) Foods that are mostly products or organisms that have their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency.
Bioremediation is the use of organisms to clean up pollution
Herbicide resistance A common trait in commercial GMOs is: being able to resist a herbicide
Ethics A system of moral principles.
Insecticide substance that kills insects
Pesticide A chemical intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.
Herbicide A substance used to destroy plants, especially weeds
Agriculture the science of farming 1. Cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops 2. Breeding animals to provide food, wool, and other products
Crossbreeding when 2 different organisms are bred together to make a new species
DNA fingerprinting The analysis of DNA samples (body tissues or fluids) in order to identify individuals.
Gene therapy Using genes to treat or prevent disease 1. Replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene 2. Taking out a gene that is not functioning properly 3. Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease
Genetic modification Changing the genes in organisms to achieve a medicinal or agricultural purpose
Selective breeding the human practice of breeding animals or plants that have certain desired traits
Transgenic an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species
Genetic engineering A technology that includes altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.
Biomedical having to do with the intersection of medicine and the natural sciences, such as biology and biochemistry
Biomass A modern name for the ancient technology of burning plant or animal material for energy production
Sustainability The ability to keep in existence
Hybrid An animal or plant resulting from a cross between different organisms
Biofuel A fuel that comes from plant/algae material or animal waste
Fossil fuel An energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Genetic sequencing The technique used to find the order of DNA bases (DNA pieces) of a particular organism
Antibiotic resistance the ability of bacteria to withstand the effects of an antibiotic
Created by: jhandy8
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