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Cell Processes

ATP adenosine triphosphate; nucleotide, energy
molecules that make up ATP Adenine, Ribose, 3 phosphate groups
triphosphate tail where energy is stored in an ATP molecule
How do cells release energy stored in ATP molecule breaking off phosphate groups from tail
inorganic phosphate the phosphate that was taken off when releasing potential energy
ADP adenosine diphosphate
chemical work building or deconstructing large molecules
mechanical work moving
active transport pumping ions across membrane
ATP is... recyclable
Where does the energy come from to rebuild ATP molecules? food
cellular respiration breaking apart glucose to make ATP
Aerobic Cellular Respiration formula (chemical equation) C6H12O6+6O2+6CO2+6H2O+36-38ATP
Aerobic Cellular Respiration formula (word equation) glucose+oxygen--> carbon dioxide+water+energy
How many ATP molecules can glucose generate up to? 38
Four stages of respiration Glycolysis, creation of acetyl CoA, Krebs cycle, Electron transport chain/Oxidative Phosphorylation
glycolysis glucose is broken in half. 1 glucose molecule ----? 2 pyruvic acid or pyruvate molecules, occurs in cytoplasm
what is needed for glycolysis? 2 ATP molecules... but later on creates 4 ATP molecules
what 2 molecules does glycolysis create? ATP and NADH
pyruvate glucose broken in half
NADH high energy molecule
aerobic respiration O2 is used, glucose is further proccessed, occurs in mitochondria
2 steps to aerobic respiration glycolysis, mitochondrial reactions
mitochondrial reactions series of chemical reactions further processing glucose using O2-- 36 additional ATP are made, 6CO2 and 6H20 is made, occur in mitochondria
anaerobic respiration fermentation, without oxygen, occurs during excersize
lactic acid fermentation starts w/ glycolysis, occurs in muscle cells during times when O2 is absent or in short supply, occurs in cytoplasm, makes 1 product (lactic acid)
lactic acid downside produces lactic acid which causes burning muscles
alcoholic fermentation starts w/ glycolysis, yeast and bacteria, occurs in cytoplasm, makes 2 products (CO2 and ETHANOL (alcohol))
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