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Ch. 7 Study Guide

Life Science 7H Study Guide: DNA (dedicated to Katie Shutler)

Within the nucleus, the DNA and the proteins it winds around is called a chromosome
DNA is made up of a subunit called? nucleotides
The nucleotides that DNA is made of is made of 3 things? sugar, phosphate, and a base
Watson and Crick built a DNA model that looks like what? a twisted ladder
The sides of the ladder are made of 2 things? sugar and phosphate
The rungs of the ladder are made of a pair of bases
What letters represent the 4 bases? A, C, T, and G
In DNA, The base Thymine (T) always pairs with? Adenine (A)
In DNA, the base Cytosine (C) always pairs with? Guanine (C)
When DNA is copied, the DNA molecule splits how? down the middle
What is a mutation? a change in the nucleotide-base sequence
What is RNA? plays a role in protein production
What base is found in RNA but not DNA? Uracil (U)
What is a ribosome? organelle composed of RNA and protein
How many bases form an amino acid? 3
How much DNA is in each one of your cells? 2 m
What organelle reads the code from mRNA to make protein? ribosomes
What is DNA? molecule that contains infor that determines the traits that a living thing inherits
What is a nucleotide? subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base in a nucleic-acid chain
What are chromosomes made out of? DNA and proteins
Inherited characteristics are determined by? genes
structures made of protein and DNA and found in the nucleus of cells are? chromosomes
What two things must the material tha makes up genes be able to do? give instuctions for building and maintaining cells and be able to be copied.
Why must genes be copied each time a cell divides? each cell contains identical genes
What allows the genetic material for genes to give instructions and be copied before a cell divides? the structure of DNA
What does a nucleotide in a nucleic acid charin consist of? sugar, phosphate, and base
Rosalind Franklin used X rays to make images of the DNA molecule, suggesting that DNA has a spiral shape
Watson and Crick built a model of DNA that helped explain how DNA is copied and functions
Erwin Chargaff found that A is always = to T and G is always = to C in DNA
The twisted shape of DNA is called a? double helix
The two sides of the double helix DNA ladder are made of alternating sugar and ___ parts. phosphate
The rungs of the double helix ladder are made of a pair of bases
The pairing of bases allows the cell to __, or make copies of DNA replicate
In a DNA molecule, pairs of bases are__ to each other complementary
As a DNA molecule splits, what is added to the exposed bases on the original molecule? complementary nucleotides
What does the job of unwinding, copying, and rewinding the DNA? proteins
What is chromatin? long strands of DNA and proteins
What forms the code that carries the info for DNA? the order of bases on one side of DNA
The chemical triggers and messangers within the cell are proteins
mRNA mirrorlike copy of one side of the segment of DNA containing a gene
tRNA molecules that picke up specific amino acids from the cytoplasm, whose bases match up with bases on mRNA