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1st 9 weeks Review

1st 9 weeks

Biology The study of living things
Abiotic Non-living
Homeostasis A relatively stable internal environment
Hypothesis A possible explanation for a set of observations
Dependent variable Is measured by the scientist and changes as a result of the independent variable
Carbohydrate Biomolecule that provides quick energy
Atom Smallest part of matter (non-living)
Organ Tissues that work together (living)
Nucleotide Monomer of nucleic acids. Sugar + phosphate group + nitrogen base
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
Mitosis Division of the nucleus. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
3 stages of the cell cycle Interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
Somatic cell Body cells. Reproduce through mitosis
Cytokinesis Division of the rest of the cell (cytoplasm & organelles)
Metaphase Second phase of mitosis. Spindle fibers attach to centromeres and chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell (equator)
Active transport Molecules move from low to high concentration, molecules move up the concentration gradient, and energy (ATP) is required.
Telophase Fourth phase of mitosis. Daughter chromosomes start to uncoil back into thinner strands of chromatin and nuclear membranes reform
G0 phase Cell rests before next division
Cell membrane Controls what goes in and out of the cells in order to help maintain homeostasis
Passive transport Molecules move from high to low concentration, molecules move down the concentration gradient, and NO energy is required.
Anaphase Third phase of mitosis. Centromere splits and spindle fibers pull sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
Diffusion Random movement of individual particles from high concentration to low concentration. A type of passive transport
Osmosis Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from high water concentration to low water concentration.
Hypertonic Water moves out of the cell and the cell shrinks.
Endocytosis The process of taking molecules into the cell by engulfing them in a membrane. Includes phagocytosis & pinocytosis. A type of active transport.
Virus Non-cellular particle made up of genetic material and a protein. Invades cells. Non-living.
Lytic cycle Viral replication in which the host cell lyses
Bacteriophage Virus that attacks bacteria
Hypotonic Water moves into the cell and the cell expands.
Biotic Living
Exocytosis The release of a substance out of the cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane. A type of active transport.
Prophase First phase of mitosis. Long strands of DNA condense into chromosomes, nuclear membrane dissolves, centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell, spindle fibers begin to form
Molecules 2 or more atoms bonded (non-living)
RNA Ribonucleic acid
Lipid Biomolecule that provides energy storage
Interphase Growth and development to prepare for cell division. G1, S phase, G2
Isotonic Water moves in and out of the cell at the same rate. No change is size of cell.
Retrovirus Virus in which RNA is transcribed into DNA
Cell Basic unit of structure and function (living)
Nitrogen bases Bind 2 DNA strands together. Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
Protein Biomolecule that expresses traits, builds & repairs body structures, and could be enzymes
Organelles "tiny organs" made of macromolecules
Membrane pump Molecules move against the gradient. Require a transport protein and ATP. A type of active transport.
Capsid A protein coat
Tissue Same kind of cell working together (living)
Facilitated diffusion Movement of molecules that are too large to pass through a selectively permeable membrane. Requires a transport protein. A type of passive transport.
Vaccine Prevents viruses
Created by: dtorre4
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