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Ch 15 Science 8

rock the solid material in the earth’s crust, formed from one or more minerals or organic materials
petrology the study of rocks
sedimentary rock rocks made up of particles that have been bonded together by natural cements or of solids that have settled from water solutions
igneous rock rocks that have cooled from a molten mixture
metamorphic rock sedimentary or igneous rocks that were altered by agents such as heat and pressure
rock cycle a concept that describes how the earth’s rocks are recycled between the crust and the upper mantle
strata A layer of sedimentary rock
clastic fragmental; rocks that have been bonded together by natural cements
nonclastic chemical; rocks made of solids that have precipitated or evaporated from water solutions
matrix a material in which something else is enclosed or embedded
porosity ratio of the volume of empty space between the particles in a rock to its total volume
permeable the ability of a rock to permit liquids and gases to pass through its pores
precipitate the solid that crystallizes out of a super-saturated solution and settles to the bottom of the solution
evaporite evaporation of water can leave the minerals behind
fossil any trace or remains of a living organism that has been preserved by natural means
paleontology the study of fossilized plants and animals
index fossils or “guide fossils”; fossils that seemingly linked layers of rock together to a corresponding time
fossil fuels natural solid, liquid, and gas materials that appear to come from fossilized remains of plants and animals
magma molten rock found beneath the earth’s surface
lava molten rock that flows out onto the earth’s surface
extrusive form when lava solidifies above the earth’s surface
intrusive formed beneath the earth’s surface, but may appear at earth’s surface because of erosion
sill an igneous rock intrusion that cuts horizontally across the original sedimentary rock strata
dike a vertical sheet of intrusive igneous rock that has been forced between existing rock strata
local metamorphism small-scale process when magma heats and compresses the surrounding rock materials, altering their crystal structure and chemical composition
regional metamorphism occurred over large areas because of the heat and pressure from immense forces---forces that folded great tracts of rock, lifted mountains, and pushed plates of the earth’s crust together
foliated layered or banded
nonfoliated not layered, tend to break into sharp, angular pieces
polystrate fossils fossils that extend through several layers of sedimentary rock
Geologic column a sequence of rock units and layers that supposedly extends through time from the earliest known rocks to the recently deposited mud, gravel, and sand



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