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NAS 125 Chapter 5

Study guide for NAS 125 Chapter 5

TermDefinition
What is a Force? A force is defined as a push or pull on an object and is computed as mass multiplied by acceleration.
What is Dalton's Law? The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures produced by each constituent gas; each gas species in the mixture acts independently of all the other molecules.
What is Air Pressure? Is the weight per unit area of the column of air above a location. (The mass of the molecules and the kinetic molecular activity.)
What is a Barometer? The instrument used to measure air pressure and monitor its changes.
What is a Mercury Barometer? It is a Barometer that is made with glass and mercury invented in 1643 by Evangelista Torricelli.
What is an Aneroid Barometer? It is a Barometer made of an air evactuated chamber, a spring, metal arrows, and pivot points to account forair pressure.
What is Air Pressure Tendency? The change in air pressure over a specific time interval (Usually several hours).
What is a Barograph? A Barograph is an Aneroid Barometer connected to a pen that records on a clock driven drum chart.
What is Air Density? Air Density is the mass of molecules per unit Volume.
What is Number Density? Number Density is the number of molecules per unit Volume.
What is the Standard Atmosphere? The Standard Atmosphere is the state of the atmosphere averaged for all Latitudes and Seasons.
What is an Isobaric Surface? An imaginary surface where the air pressure is the same everywhere.
What is the Autoconvective Lapse Rate? 34 Degrees Celcius per 1000 Meters
What is an Altimeter? An Aneroid Barometer calibrated to monitor altitude.
What is an Air Mass? A huge volume of air.
What does Avogadro's Law say? That when water molecules enterr the atmosphere as water vapor while the temperatue and pressure of the atmospshere of the air remains constant, they displace other gas molecules, mostly oxygen and nitrogen.
What is Air Mass Modification? A change in air mass Temperature and/or Water Vapor Concentration.
What are Diverging Winds? Winds blowing away from a column of air.
What are Converging Winds? Winds blowing toward a column of air.
What is an Isobar? A line passing through locations having the same air pressure.
What is an Anticyclone? A Large-Scale High Pressure System.
What is a Cyclone? A Large-Scale Low Pressure System.
What are the Variables of State? Variations in Temperature, Pressure, and Density.
What is an Ideal Gas? A gas that follows the Kinetic Molecular Theory precisely.
What is the Kinetic Molecular Theory? A Theory that says that an ideal gas is made up of a very large number of molecules that move rapidly and randomly, and that molecules in motion experience perfectly elastic collisions and lose no momentum.
What is provided by the Gas Law? An accurate depiction of the behavior of gases.
What is Charles' Law? A Law that says that with constant pressure, the absolute temperature (In Kelvin) of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the denstiy of the gas.
What is Boyle's Law? A Law that says that When the Temperature is held constant, the Pressure and Density of an ideal gas are directly proportional.
What is the Ideal Gas Law? A combination of Boyle's Law and Charles' Law.
What is the Gas Conatnt? An experimentally derived number that converts a proportional relationship to an equation. (Dependent on Gas)
What is an Air Parcel? An arbitrary amount of air useful for visualizing atmospheric processes, containing a fixed number of molecules.
What is Expansional Cooling? Whenever a gas (or mixture of gases) expands, The Temperature of the gas drops.
What is Compressional Warming? Whenever a gas (or mixture of gases) compresses, The Temperature of the gas rises.
What is The Law of Conservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)? All original energy in any physical or biological system is constant regardless of energy tranformations. Heat energy gained by an air parcel is either added to the parcel's store of internal energy or is used to do work on the parcel.
What is Internal Energy? All of the Energy in the substance: the kinetic energy of atoms and the potential energy arising from froces between atoms and molecules.
What is an Adiabatic Process? When an air parcel is ascending ordecending within the atmosphere, the air parcel is neither heated nor cooled by radiation, conduction, phase changes of water, or mixing with the environment.
What is the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate? 9.8 Degree Celcius rise for every 1000 meters of descent.
What is the Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate? 4 - 9.8 Degree Celcius rise for every 1000 meters of descent. (Average of 6 Degree Celcius)
What happens at any specified point in the atmosphere with air pressure? Air Pressure of the same magnitude is exerted in all directions.
How much of the earths atmospheres mass is under 5.5km? 50% of the atmospheres mass.
How much of the earths atmospheres mass is under 9km? 99% of the atmospheres mass.
Which are denser cold or warm air masses? Cold air masses are denser.
What is a Pascal? The Pascal is the standard metric unit or pressure.
What is the Pressure at Sea Level in Pascals (Pa)? 101,325 Pa
What is the Pressure at Sea Level in HectoPascals (hPa)? 1013.25 hPa
What is the Pressure at Sea Level in KiloPascals (kPa)? 101.325 kPa
What is the Pressure at Sea Level in millibars (mb)? 1013.25 mb
How many HectoPascals does 1 millibar equal? 1 HectoPascal
How many Pascals does 1 millibar equal? 100 Pascals
How many Inches of Mercury does 1 millibar equal? 0.02953 Inches of Mercury
Created by: NAS 125
 

 



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