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B1 Etc.

extra stuff that didn't fit in cases

What is cytogenetic analysis? Involves making a KARYOTYPE showing chromosomal makeup of an individual somatic cell, inc. CHROMOSOMAL NUMBER, ARRANGEMENT, SIZE & STRUCTURE.
In what phase of the cell cycle are cells during cytogenetic analysis? METAPHASE - b/c it's condensed & easier to see.
What stain is used to visualize chromosomal bands in cytogenetic analysis? MGG - different chromosomes naturally stain differently, which allows for visual pairing.
What might a mutation look like in cytogenetic analysis? Discrepancy btn size & banding patterns.
What does a normal karyotype look like on cytogenetic analysis? 22 pairs autosomal chromosomes & 1 pair sex chromosomes
What are the advantages of cytogenetic analysis? fairly simple, been used for years
What are the disadvantages of cytogenetic analysis? time intensive, not as sensitive as newer methods, can’t detect specific BCR-ABL products
What does FISH stand for? Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization
What is FISH used for? to ID specific parts/mutations on a chromosome, & to find the location of a gene & determine if translocation occurred
What is commonly used first to find the presence of Ph+ chromosome? FISH
In what phase of the cell cycle should cells be in FISH? METAPHASE so that chromosomes don’t overlap
What are the advantages of FISH? quick, commercially available kits, sensitive
What are the disadvantages of FISH? can’t specify different mutations
What does PCR stand for? Polymerase Chain Reaction
What is PCR used for? AMPLIFY DNA sequences. Requires only a sm amt of DNA. Quickly becoming most widely used method of BCR-ABL Dx.
What are the advantages of PCR? quick, primers commercially available, can detect specific mutations
What are some specific advantages of PCR? Can detect much smaller mutations than cytogenic analysis. Can find one BCR/ABL chromosome in a sample of 500,000 cells!!!
What is RT-PCR? Reverse Transcriptase PCR
What is RT-PCR used for? Can see if mRNA is being produced; this references proteins being used.
How does RT-PCR work? Use RT to convert mRNA to DNA then amplify
What is the advantage of RT-PCR? Only see EXONS – so better idea of what PTN will be
What is Southern Blot? detects DNA on gel w/ fluorescently labeled probes
What is Northern Blot? detects RNA on gel w/ fluorescently labeled probes
What is Western Blot? detects protein on gel w/ fluorescently labeled probes
How do you do a blot? Slide product in gel & blot – time intensive so not used very much. Not all diagnostic labs have the equipment
Created by: 16813610



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