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Cell bio

DNA replication repair and recombination

self replication is the fundamental property of life (T/F) True
creation of DOlly from ___ nuclear transfer indicates that most of the information need for individual development. somatic nuclear transfer
what are the challenges of coping and keeping genetic information continuity vs adaptation ; speed vs error rate ; repair or not to repair ; recombination
what is mitosis used for growth and repair , maintenance ( old to new) cells ; repair( damaged tissues )
what does it mean for DNA replication to be semi-conservative each new strand can serve as a template for synthesis of new DNA strand
what initiates DNA replication ORC( origin of replication center)
motor proteins which can unzip double-stranded DNA DNA helicases helicases binds to single - stranded DNA , using the energy from ATP hydrolysis , they push the other strand away
germline cells replicate at ___ rate or ____ accuracy than somatic cells a much lower error rate or much higher accuracy
DNA synthesis occurs only in the ___ direction 5' to 3' direction
___ catalyzes the addition of nucleosides to the 3' -end of an existing oligonucleotide DNA pol
what are the two important feature of DNA polymerase speed and primer
de novo synthesis is ( error prone / not ) error prone
an endonuclease responsible for removing the RNA primer in lagging strand Flap endonuclease 1
on lagging strand RNA primers are needed every 200nucleotides
an enzyme that stiches ligate the gap b/n okazaki fragments DNA ligase
proteins present at the fork of replication DNA clamp , ssDNA binding protein , clamp loader ( replication factors )
what enzyme adds RNA primers DNA primase
what relaxes the supercoil adead of the unwinding strands topoisomerase
the error rate of DNA polymerization is 1 in__ and the total error per cell doubling is __ 100,000 bases , 30,000 ( 3, 000,000,000 / 100,000)
DNA polymerase has a domain with ___ activity , how much is the error rate now exonuclease : 1 /10,000,000nt copied
The cleavage of a mismatched nucleotide at the 5’ end will leave __ (n) a monophosphate group at the 5’ end, this blocks the addition of a new precursor unless a PP is added back to the 5 end
three steps that give rise to high-fidelity DNA synthesis 5' - 3' polymerization ; proof-reading ; strand-directed mismatch repair
why would DNA shorten RNA primer at the end will be removed and the copy is short the size of the RNA primer
the mistamch repair mechanism invloves __ and __ proteins MUtL and MutS
enzyme ___ maintains the length of genome telomerase
Telomerase is Expressed in stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells, which proliferate indefinitely.
telomerase is turned off in most somatic cells, e.g. epithelia cells
Telomere may function as a molecular timer to prevent indefinite proliferation in somatic cells. Why?
what 3 things are repaired in DNA repair Errors in DNA replication ; "spontaneous" DNA alterations , induced mutaions
nitrous acid is not an example of a mutagen false ; it causes deamination
the most frequent DNA damage : depurination and deamination
one of the consequences of DNA damage is strand breakage which entails deletion of longer stretch of DNA ; translocation ; fusion
what are visible DNA damage response to sunburn transcriptional changes ( darkening of skin ) and apoptosis ( skin peeling )
list 4 DNA damage response DNA repair , Cell cycle arrest , Transcription regulation , Apoptosis
what are the "drill-n-fill" methods for repairing damaged DNA base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair
how does DNA repair double strand breaks end joining and homologous recombination
list enzymes is base excision repair (n) DNA glycosylase : Apurinic/Apyrimidinic endonuclease ; DNA polymerase : DNA ligase glycosylase removes the defective nucleotide , endonucleases create nicks ; polymerase adds new nucleotide ; ligase ligates
what is the quick and dirty way of DNA strand break repair (N) broken ends processed by endonuclease and joined by DNA ligase net result is : it will be repaired with deletion of nucleotides/ it becomes shorter
what is slow but flawless way of repairing DNA strand breaks homologous recombination
how is site specific recombination achieved/ what mediates it Mobile Genetic Elements :: Transposons and Retroviruses
what are the steps in DNA repair using recombination 1. specific enzymes create a strand breakage 2. recombination can happen anywhere between two homologous DNA 3. process results in exchange over long stretches of DNA
what are the ultimate parasite ( viruses) MGEs(mobile genetic elements)
50% of human geneome is MGE (T/F) True
MGE's include Viruses(T/F) True
An inverted repeat (or IR) is a sequence of nucleotides that is the reversed complement of another sequence further downstream.
three mode of transposon movement answer on slides
Transposons move by (n) cut-n-paste or copy-n-paste non-replicative -- cut and paste ; replicative - copy n paste
the simplest mobile element is DNA-only transposons
what are the 3 major types of transposons DNA only , Restroviral - like , non-retroviral
Transposon movement : why is cut-n-paste non replicative and copy and paste is replicative the total # of transposons did not change , where as in copy and paste the copy number of the transposons is increaed
list steps in the cut-n-paste process expression of transposase ; excision in the donor chromosome , insertion of short direct repeats in the target chromosome
Transposons typically do not move unless the cell is placed under stress, such as by irradiation or the during homologous recombination.
transposon activation during stress may serve as a source of genetic variation for evolution
because retrotransposons can not be removed, their integration can be used as molecular clock.
the ultimate MGE, that is fully mobile viruses
significance of MGE (n) Evolution , they are genetic parasites ==>Accelerate evolution: gene duplication, Create genetic variation ==> Disrupt genome (cancer; hemophilia etc.)Suppressed by mutation, methylation, siRNA, piRNA etc.
Created by: jemalk
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