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Cell-bio terms

Scaffold proteins where nucleosomes are anchored to
mutagens an agent which can alter the structure or sequence of DNA
transposons simple genetic elements that move within or between cells
Specificity A specific codon always codes for the same amino acid.
Universality – The genetic code has been conserved through evolution.
Redundancy (Degeneracy) – An amino acid might have more than one codon coding for it.
Nonoverlapping and commaless – Read as a continuous sequence of bases.
termination codes UAA, UAG , UGA
Nonsense mutation – The altered base causes the codon to be a termination codon.
Splice Site Mutations Alter the way in which introns are removed from pre-mRNA molecules, producing aberrant proteins
tandem repeats when a codon is repeated multiple times in a gene
chloramphenicol Inhibits prokaryotic peptidyltransferase.
puromycin structurally resembles aminoacyl-tRNA, so once incorporated into the ribosome, elongation is halted
tetracyclines drug blocks access of the aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site
streptomycin drug that binds to 30S ribosome and distorts structure
Clindamycin and erythromycin bind irreversibly to the 50S ribosome subunit, thus, inhibiting translocation.
Diphtheria toxin – inactivates the eukaryotic elongation factor, eEf-2, preventing translocation
Zymogens inactive precursors of secreted enzymes
Cistrone genes
terminator short sequences at the 3' end of gene to terminate transcription
operator interacts with transcription factors to regulate transcription
regulon a collection of two or more operons subject to the same type of coordinated regulation
Allele nature of the gene
Genotype description of the alleles present
Phenotype description of effects of the alleles present
mendel's law of segregation alleles of homologous genes separate from each other at meiosis
Mendel’s law of independent assortment: an allele on one chromosome will be distributed to the gametes independently with regard to alleles on non-homologous chromosomes
cytogenetics study of the structure of chromosome and their inheritance
Disjunction – proper separation of chromosomes during meiosis I and II.
Non-disjunction – abnormal separation of chromosomes
Aneuploid abnormal # of chromosome
polyploid more than normal # of chromosome -common in plants
Monosomy having only one copy of a given chromosome
Trisomy having three copies a chromosome
Turner syndrome a female is missing an X chromosome ( either from dad or mom)(45)
Klinefelter Syndrome a male has an extra X chromosome , gained from mom/ dad (47)
Down syndrome Trisomy 21 - nondisjunction leading to 2 copies of chromosome , 21 in one gamete
patau syndrom Trisomy 13
Edwards syndrom Trisomy 18
Gene dosage the number of copies of a particular gene that are present in the cells
PKU -phenyl Ketonurea mutations in both alleles of the gene for phenylalanine hydroxylase ( PAH ) -- autosomal recessive
Tay-Sachs glycolipids accumulation in neurons and ganglions
Co-dominance 2 alleles which in combination produce a combination of traits
penetrance % of individuals in the population with a given genotype that show signs of the specified phenotype
Variable expressivity degree to which a condition is actually phenotypically expressed in an individual with a given genotype
pleiotropy one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits.
marfan Syndrome mutations in gene encoding fibrillin 1 autosomal dominant
Epigenetics any factor that can affect the phenotype without changing the genotype
allele( gene ) frequency proportion of each allele in the population
Genotype frequency proportion of each genotype in the population
polygenic traits or diseases caused by the combined effects of multiple genes
Created by: jemalk
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