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Ch 7 G.H. Biology

Guest Hollow Biology Chapter 7 vocab

TermDefinition
central dogma of molecular biology doctrine that genetic instructions in DNA are copied by RNA, which carries them to a ribosome where they are used to synthesize a protein (DNA → RNA → protein)
Chargaff’s rules observations by Erwin Chargaff that concentrations of the four nucleotide bases differ among species, and that the concentrations of adenine and thymine are always about the same and the concentrations of cytosine and guanine are always about the same
messenger RNA (mRNA) type of RNA that copies genetic instructions from DNA in the nucleus and carries them to the cytoplasm
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) type of RNA that helps form ribosomes and assemble proteins
transfer RNA (tRNA) type of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes where they are joined together to form proteins
codon group of three nitrogen bases in nucleic acids that makes up a code “word” of the genetic code and stands for an amino acid, start, or stop
genetic code universal code of three-base codons that encodes the genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of proteins
promoter region of a gene where a RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription of the gene
protein synthesis process in which cells make proteins that includes transcription of DNA and translation of mRNA
transcription process in which genetic instructions in DNA are copied to form a complementary strand of mRNA
translation process in which genetic instructions in mRNA are “read” to synthesize a protein
Point mutations mutations where one letter changes on the DNA sequence
Inversion mutations a segment of DNA in a particular strand that reverses itself
Insertion mutations a segment of DNA, whether a single base pair or an extensive length, that is inserted into the DNA strand
Deletion mutations a segment of DNA, whether a single base pair or an extensive length, that is deleted from the strand
Frame shift mutations These mutations can be caused by an insertion or deletion of one or more letters not divisible by three, which causes an offset in the reading of the “letters” of the DNA
gene expression use of a gene to make a protein
homeobox gene gene that codes regulatory proteins that control gene expression during development
operator a region of an operon where regulatory proteins bind
operon region of prokaryotic DNA that consists of a promoter, an operator, and one or more genes that encode proteins needed for a specific function
regulatory element region of DNA where a regulatory protein binds
regulatory protein protein that regulates gene expression
TATA box regulatory element that is part of the promoter of most eukaryotic genes
Created by: khirschy
 

 



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