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Fletcher 7th grade Changes of Earth

Divide The boundary that separates one watershed from another
Fresh water Any water not found in oceans or seas
groundwater the water stored in the ground
reservoir a large natural or human-made lake used to supply water
river system a river and all its tributaries
runoff the water that flows over the ground surface
Water table the top of the saturated zone
artesian well a well in which water reaches the surface due to natural pressure of an aquifer
Impermeable not allowing fluid to pass through
well a shaft dug into the ground to bring water from an aquifer to the surface
geyser a hot spring in which water intermittenly boils, sending a tall column of water and steam into the air
spring natural flow of water from the ground or from rocks
unsaturated zone the area of permeable ground above the water table that is filled with a combination of water and air
saturated zone the area of permeable ground filled with groundwater
aquifer a layer of permeable rock underground that can contain or transmit groundwater
permeable allowing liquids or gases to pass through
abrasion the process of rocks and particles scraping against one another wearing away their surfaces
bedrock a layer of solid rock found beneath soil
chemical weathering the breakdown of rocks that also changes their mineral composition
erosion the process by which fragments of rock are loosened and carried away
fertility the ability of soil to support agricultural plant growth
creep the extremely slow downhill movement of soil and rocks
deposition the geologic process by which sediment is added to a location
landslide the rapid downhill movement of a mass of rock, soil and debris
mass movement the movement of soil and rock debris down a slope
mudflow the rapid downhill flow of a mixture of rock, soil, and water
slump the downward slide of a mass of rock or soil in one piece
stalactite an icicle-shaped formation that hangs from the ceiling of a cave
glacier a large, slowly moving body of ice and snow
runoff the water that flows over the ground surface
stalagmite a mound of mineral deposits shaped like a cone on a cave floor
surface water any water found on Earth's surface
Karst topography an area of land characterized by barren, rocky ground; caves; sinkholes; underground rivers; and the absence of surface streams and lakes
deflation the process by which wind moves loose sediment
groundwater the water that is stored in the ground
plucking the process by which a glacier picks up larger rocks and deposits them in a new area
ice age a period when continental glaciers covered much of Earth's surface
speciation the evolutionary process through which new species emerge
Solar energy energy given off by the Sun
La Nina an irregular climate event in the eastern Pacific Ocean during which surface waters become colder than usual
tectonic plate a puzzle piece-like section of the Earth's surface that slowly moves due to convection in the mantle
global warming a gradual increase in the temperature of Earth's atmosphere
tsunami a large ocean wave usually caused by an undersea earthquake
density the amount of mass in a given volume
atmosphere the blanket of gasses that surrounds the surface of a planet
ozone a form of oxygen that absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
altitude a measure of how high above sea level an area is
pressure the force pushing on an area or a surface
air pressure the force of a column of air pushing on a given area
mass the amount of matter in an object
Crust the outermost solid layer of the Earth's surface
Mantle the outermost layers of the Earth's surface consisting of the crust/Lithosphere, the thick syrupy Asthenosphere, and the solid lower mantle
Core Center of the Earth consisting of the molten liquid outer core, and the solid inner core
Infrared light a form of invisible electromagnetic energy that has a longer wavelength than visible light
radiation the transfer of energy through space
conduction the direct transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through touching
thermal energy the energy an object has because of the movement of its particles
Electromagnetic waves a wave that can transfer electric and magnetic energy through space
wavelength the distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the next wave
convection the transfer of thermal energy through a liquid or gas rising
temperature a measure of how hot or cold something is
ultraviolet radiation a form of invisible electromagnetic energy that has a shorter wavelength than visible light
greenhouse effect the process by which Earth's surface radiates heat into the atmosphere, which radiates some of the heat back to Earth
Created by: coach_fletcher


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