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Unit 3 Study Guide

Anatomy and Physilogy

QuestionAnswer
the central portion of a long bone is the _______while the ends are_________ diaphysis; epiphysis
red marrow produces____________ and is located in the ______________ all blood cells; spongy bone
mature bone cells are called_____________and are located in______________ osteocytes; lacunae
cells that make bone martix are: osteoblasts
the concentric circle pattern found in compact bone is: lamelle
cells that break down bone matrix are: osteoclasts
osteoclasts and osteoblasts are located in the__________ and____________ endosteum; periosteum
spongy bone is made up of plates of bone called: trabeculae
the formation of flat bones from membranes in the skull is: intramembranous ossification
the formation of long bones from cartilage is: endochondral ossification
the proximal and distal ends of long bones are covered by_______________. the remainder of the bone, including the diaphysis, is covered by___________ reticular cartilage; periosteum
the basic structural unit of compact bone is the: osteon
bone growth in length takes place at the: epiphysial plate
bone growth in length is ________________ and width is_______________ interstitial growth; appositional growth
use these choices: central canals, perforating canals, canaliculi, and lacunae. which of these carries blood? central and perforating canals
use these choices: central canals, perforating canals, canaliculi, and lacunae. which of these carries tissue fluid? canaliculi and lacunae
use these choices: central canals, perforating canals, canaliculi, and lacunae. which contains osteocytes? lacunae
use these choices: central canals, perforating canals, canaliculi, and lacunae. which begins at the periosteum? perforating canals
use these choices: central canals, perforating canals, canaliculi, and lacunae. which carries blood closest to the osteocytes? cantral canals
the medullary cavity is located in the ____________ and is filled with_______________ diaphysis; yellowmarrow
which minerals are stored in bone? calcium and phosphate
appesrsnce of the epiphyseal line on an x-ray means that: bone has stopped growing
bone will continue to grow if the ______________ is still present epiphyseal plate
what structure fastens the periosteum to the bone? perforating fibers
the most common fiber found in organic matrix of bones is: colagen fibers
describe a comminuted fracture: pieces of bone in break
describe a greenstick fracture: partial break
describe a impacted fracture: one bone is driven into another
describe a spiral fracture: involves twisting of the bone
describe how bone fractures heal: 1. hematoma 2. fibrocatilaginous callus 3. bony callus 4. remodeling
shaking your head "no" requires the use of a _________ joint pivot
the elbow is an example of a _________joint hinge
the trapezium and metacarpal 1 form a _________joint saddle
intervertebral disks and vertebrae form this type of joint: cartilaginous or amphiarthtosis
the epiphyseal plate forms this type of joint with the epiphysis: cartilaginous or synarthrosis
sutures in an adult skull form this type of joint: fibrous or synarthrosis
these joints are found at the knuckles: chondoloid
freely moveable joints are: synovial
structures that reduce friction are___________and_____________ bursa; tendon sheaths
describe synarthrosis: doesn't move
describe synostosis: completely ossified
describe amphiarthrosis: slightly moveable
describe fibrous: has fibrous CT
describe cartilaginous: has cartilage
describe diarthrosis: and freely moveable joint
describe synovial: freely moveable; has synovial membrane
describe sutures: found in the skull; synostosis; fibrous joint
describe syndesmosis: bone bound by a ligament
describe symphysis: cartilage between two bones; moves slightly
describe plane: allows gliding movement
describe hinge: opens and closes like a door
describe pivot: allows rotation
describe condyloid: rounded bone in a cup-like depression
describe saddle: allows opposition
describe ball & socket: most freely moveable of all the joints
which muscle is voluntary, has striationas and peripheral nuclei? skeletal muscle
which muscle is involuntary, lacks striations, and is found in internal organs? smooth muscle
which muscle is involuntary, has striations and intercalated disks? cardiac muscle
name four muscle functions: movement, posture, stabilizes joints, generates heat
identify sarcolemma: plasma membrane of muscle
identify sarcomere: basic contractile unit in muscle
describe where troponin is found and what its role in contraction is: thin filament; binds Ca2+
describe where tropomyosin is found and what its role in contraction is: thin filament; covers myosin binding site on actin
describe where actin is found and what its role in contraction is: thin filament; combines with myosin during contraction
describe where myosin is found and what its role in contraction is: thin filament; combines with myosin heads
describe where titin is found and what its role in contraction is: attaches thick filament to z-disc
what are the roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ in muscle contraction? impulse causes SR to active transport Ca2+ out of muscle and Ca2+ binds to troponin
summarize what happens during the "power stroke" of skeletal muscle contraction: myosin heads swivel up. tropomyosin moves. myosin heads link up with actin. myosin heads swivel down pulling think filaments towards center os sarcomere, myosin heads break down ATP inton ADP, detach, and swivel up. repeats 30-100 times
identify meuromuscular junction (NMJ): where motor neuron communicates with skeletal muscle
identify acetylcholine (Ach): nerve transmitter used at NMJ
identify motor unit: motor neuron and all skeletal muscle fibers stimulated
identify prime mover: muscle doing work
identify antagonist: muscle relaxing while prime mover works
identify synergist: muscle that prevents unwanted movement
identify fixator: muscle that anchors prime mover to origen
identify origin: attachment to a nonmoving bone
identify insertion: attachment to a moving bone
Created by: twilight52