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Unit Two Study Guide

Anatomy and Physiolohy

give a function for cilia: movements
give a function for centriole: active in cell division, makes spindle fibers
give a function for cytoplasm: region of cell
give a function for cytoskeleton: cell shape
give a function for flagella: movement
give a function for golgi appatatus: processing, packaging, export center
give a function for lysosome: intercellular digestion
give a function for mitochondria: make ATP
give a function for nuclear envelope: double membrane, surrounds nucleus, controlls what goes in and out
give a function for nucleus: contains DNA; controlls activity in cell
give a function for peroxisome: deoxification; contains enzymes
give a function for plasma membrane: controlls what goes in and out of cell
give a function for ribosome: protein synthesis site
give a function for rough ER: protein synthesis
give a function for smooth ER: makes lipids
give a function for microvilli: increases surface area to aid absorption
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: active transport active; uses ATP, moves against concentration gradient
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: bulk-phase endocytosis active; eats a droplet of solute and whatever is in it
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: diffusion passive; molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: exocytosis active; anything moving out of a cell
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: facilitated diffusion passive; involves channel proteins
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: osmosis the diffusion of water
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: phagocytosis active; one cell eating another cell
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: solute (ion) pumps active; moving ions across membranes using channels
describe and classify as an active or passive transport method: receptor-mediated endocytosis active; selective molecule intake using receptors
describe how water will move for a cell in each of these solutions:isotonichypotonichypertonic isotonic: water in=water out, cell stays the same sizehypotonic: water in>water out, cell swellshypertonic: water<water out, cell shrinks
name and describe the four tissues: epithelial - covers surface; involved with protection, absorption and secretionconnective - binds, supports and protects; cells in a matrixmuscle - movement and heat productionnervous - communication
identify endocrine gland: secretes into blood
identify exocrine gland: secretes into ducts
identify fibroblasts: make fibers
describe simple squamous epithelium: on layer of flat cells on a surface
describe stratified squamous epithelium: several layers of flat cells
describe pseudostratified columnar epithelium: looks stratified but is not, cells are column shaped
describe simple cuboidal epithelium: one layer or cube-shaped cells
describe simple columnar epithelium: one layer of column-shaped cells
describe transitional epithelium: changes shape
discribe areolar CT: loose CT made of fibroblasts, elasitc fibers, and collegen fibers
discribe dense regular CT: made of collagen fibers and fibroblasts
discribe dense irregular CT: made of collegen fibers and fibroblasts
discribe adipose tissue: fat, made of adipocytes, stores lipids
describe hyaline cartilage: chondocytes in lacunae/ground substance
describe fibrocartilage: chondrocytes in lacunae/ground substance/collagen fibers
describe elastic cartilage: chondrocytes in lacunae/ ground substance/elastic fibers
describe bone: osteocytes in lacunae/collagen fibers/calcium and phosphate salts
describe blood: WBC and RBC in plasma matrix
describe skeletal muscle: has striations
describe cardiac muscle: has striations and intercalated disks
describe smooth muscle: no striations
describe neuron: communication
describe neuroglia: support cell
state makeup and location for serous membrane: epithelium and CT; closed cavities
state makeup and location for synovial membrane: CT; between free-moving joints
state makeup and location for cutaneous membrane: epithelium and CT, skin
state makeup and location for mucous membrane: epithelium and CT, lines open cavities
distinguish between visceral and parietal: visceral is on surface or organ and parietal lines cavity
distinguish among peritoneum, pericardium, and pleura: peritoneum: abdominopelvic cavitypericardium: heartpleura: lungs
describe the epidermis in terms of tissue, function, and blood supply: stratified squamous epithelium, protection, avascular
describe the dermis in terms of tissue, function, and blood supply: most tissues, toughness, vascular
describe the hypodermis in terms of tissue, function, and blood supply: adipose tissue, insulation, vascular
name the five layers of "thick skin" epidermis from superficial to deep: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
what is the source, location and signicance of melanin: melanocytes; stratum basale; UV protection
what is the source, location and signicance of keratin: keratinocytes; basale; waterproofing
identify dermal papillae: allows nutrients from the dermis to get to the epidermis
identify Meissner's corpuscles: nerve endings
identify: arrector pili: responsable for goosebumps
identify sebum: oil
identify Pacinian corpuscles: pressure receptors
identify lunula: half moons on fingernails
identify sebaceous gland: makes sebum; associated with hair
identify definitive hair: stops growing
identify angora hair: keeps growing
identify lanugo hair: fetal hair
identify ceruminous gland: found in ear; makes cerumen
identify cerumen: earwax
identify eccrine and apocrine sudoriferous glands: sweat glands
Created by: twilight52
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